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Some terms can be used more than once. This includes ONLY the vocabulary and the notes. Make sure to study the reviews and the diagrams.

air pressure

the weight of air pressing down on an area

relative humidity

a comparision of the actual amount of moisture in the air to the greatest possible amount that could be in the air at the same temperature and pressure

front

what is the border between two air masses that collide called

wind

the movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure

continental polar air

a cold, dry air mass that forms over Alaska and northern Canada

continental tropical air

a very hot, dry air mass that forms over the deserts of Mexico and the southwestern U.S. and can bring drought conditions to the Great Plains

pacific maritime polar air

cool, moist air that brings moisture from the northern Pacific Ocean

pacific maritime tropical air

warm, moist air from the Pacific Ocean west of Mexico that sometimes brings summer showers to the dry southwestern U.S.

atlantic maritime polar air

cool, moist air from the North Atlantic that can bring clouds or cooler weather

atlantic maritime tropical air

warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Carribean Sea that brings summer heat and humidity

arctic air

very cold, very dry air from the Arctic Circle that sometimes reaches the U.S.

polar easterlies north

these winds blow from the east, bringing polar air masses south

polar easterlies south

by moving cold polar air toward the equator, the polar easterlies help keep the global temperature in balance

prevailing westerlies north

blowing from west to east, these winds cause most of the weather in the U.S.

prevailing westerlies south

these winds cause the weather patterns in southern Africa and South America

northeast trade winds

these are the winds that took sailors in earlier centuries from Europe to the New World

southeast trade winds

these winds, blowing from southeast to northwest, also helped ships sail across the Atlantic Ocean

hundreds

how many kilometers of air does gravity pull down on

air pressure

when gravity pulls down on hundreds of kilometers of air, what happens

14.7

this number is the normal amount of air pressure at sea level
the number is in pounds per square inch

weather

a change in the air pressure is a sign that what will change

replace

as an air mass moves into an area, does it replace or mix with the air mass that was there before it

thousands

air masses can be several kilometers high, but how many kilometers wide can they be

pacific maritime polar air
pacific maritime tropical air
continental tropical air
continental polar air
atlantic maritime tropical air
atlantic maritime polar air
arctic air

name the 7 major air masses

relative humidity

name one characteristic of an air mass

humid

maritime air masses humid or dry

dry

are continetental air masses humid or dry

uneven heating of the Earth

what are winds on a large scale caused by

polar easterlies north
prevailing westerlies north
northeast trade winds
southeast trade winds
prevailing westerlies south
polar easterlies south

name the 6 major wind belts

collide

as an air mass moves, does it collide or mix with other air masses

equator and poles

collisions of air masses usually occur halfway between these two places

pushing

air masses move at different speeds, so will the faster one be pushing the other one or will it dissapear

mix

what do air masses NEVER do

above

will the warmer air mass be pushed above or under the cooler air mass

fronts

what causes entirely new weather

meteorologists

what are scientists who study the weather called

warm fronts
cold fronts
stationary fronts
occluded fronts

name the 4 kinds of fronts

warm front

when a warm air mass moves into an area of cooler air, what is the boundary that forms between them called

cool

as the warm air mass moves up in a gentle slope over the cooler one, does it cool or burn

clouds

after the warm air mass moves above the cooler one and after it cools, what does it condense into

cumulonimbus

what are the highest clouds

move in front of the front

do the cirrus clouds:
move in front of the front
or
does the front move in front of the cirrus clouds

warm

cirrus clouds are a sign that what kind of front is coming

steady

cirrus clouds are followed by lower clouds that cause rain, sleet, snow and gray, clouds skies usually follow
is it a steady precipitation or is it a heavy precipitaion

days

how long can the rain from cirrus clouds last before the warm front arrives

warm

the leading edge of a cold air mass causes a cold front as it collides with what type of air mass

cold front

which weather change is more extreme:
cold front
or
warm front

closer

do the weather changes for a cold front take place closer to the front or farther away from the front itself

cold

which move faster
cold or warm air masses

wedges

when a COLD air mass collides with a warm air mass, does it wedge itself itself under the warm air mass or does it rise above the warm air mass

cumulonimbus

the warm air mass is forced upward so fast that what kind of clouds form from quick cooling

60,000

cumulonimbus clouds can rise up to how many feet in the air.....up to the bottom of the stratosphere

summer

what season do cold fronts cause thunderstorms and tornadoes

cold front storms

what lasts longer:
cold front storms
or
warm front storms

move

sometimes the boundary between two air masses don't:
move
or
swell

stationary fronts

when the boundary between two air masses don't mix, what kind of front is it

clouds

often warm air mixes with the cool air
what forms on both sides of the stationary front

upward
cool

when warm air mixes with cool air and clouds form on both sides of the front, are the clouds pushed upward or down
after the are pushed upward/downward, do the clouds burn or cool

light

precipitiation occurs and is usually lasts a long time
is the precipitaion:
light
or
heavy

stationary

when a warm or cold front stalls, what kind of front does it turn into

both

when a stationary front starts moving again, it turns back into a:
warm front
cold front
or
both

occluded

what kind of front takes place when a cold front takes over a warm front

cold

the cold air mass comes in so fast it completely wedges itself under the warm front and meets what kind of front on the other side

lifted above the 2 cold air masses

as a result of the cold mass wedging itslef under the warm front during the occluded front, is the warm air mass:
lifted above the 2 cold air masses
or
stays put

cold air mass

in an occluded front, the warm air mass sits trapped over what kind of air mass

warm

when an occluded front is fully formed, the weather is much like what kind of front
there is a light, steady rain or snow

arctic air

what type of air mass does not come into the U.S. often

warm front

gentle slope
steady, gentle precipitiation for days

cold front

cold air mass wedges itself below warm air mass
extreme thunderstorms
over quickly

stationary front

neither air mass is moving
only mixing of air masses is along the front (boundary)
precipitation is similar to a warm front
light rain that lasts for days
when air masses move, name of front changes to warm/cold front

occluded front

in what type of front is:
the warm air mass pushed above 2 cold air masses
the warm air mass sits trapped above 2 cold air masses
precipitation is similar to cold front
extreme thunderstorms, but they are over quickly

H

high pressure (means good weather)

L

low pressure (means bad weather)

cumulonimbus

tall clouds that bring thunderstorms

cumulus

these clouds look piled up and fluffy

cumulous
cirrus

these clouds usually mean good weather

cumulus

these clouds can produce light rain

stratus

these clouds mean "layer"

stratus

these clouds form layers

stratus

what type of low clouds make up fog

cirrus

these clouds are high and look thin and wispy

cirrus

the name of this cloud means "curl of hair"

cirrus

these clouds usually mean a change in the weather is coming

stratus
cumulus
cirrus
cumulonimbus

name the four types of clouds starting with the closest to the Earth and up

wind

what moves air masses from one place to another

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