Types of Audiences
One that doesn't want to be there but are forced to be there.
One that is happily there are eager to listen.
One that may be opposed to your topic, that may not like you, and may not like your characteristics.
One that doesn't care about you, your topic, or your position.
One that analyzes evaluates, questions, and challenges.
One that has no knowledge of the topic, but has the ability to understand and is usually passive.
One that is challenging for a speaker that knows something about the topic and is hard on the speaker, that wants to know something they don't already know.
One that has people with widely different views and is the hardest for the speaker to address.
An audience that is very much alike in values, attitudes, knowledge, and characteristics.
Types of Audience Analysis
3. Survey Questionnaire
4. Personal Interview
2. Analyze Yourself
1. Select the Topic
2.Create a Speech Outline
3. Create a Notecard
4. Create an Audio Visual Aid
Hallmarks of Topic Selection
3. Is the topic prescribed
4. Be Personally Interested
5. Time Limits
6. Enough Research
7. A Topic that the audience is somewhat interested in.
The physical presentation of a speech using your voice and body.
Modes of Oral Delivery
1. Extemporaneous Speaking
2. Impromptu Speaking
3. Manuscript Speaking
4. Memorized Speaking
1. Uses Notes
2. Appears sponteaneous but it is carefully prepared and rehearsed,
4. Eye contact, gestures, movement
5. Uses outline
6. Don't read the outline
1. No preparation or notes
2. Thinking on your feet
3. Spontaneous but rehearsal or research
4. Informal language
Used by people who expect to be quoted. It is scripted and read.
1. No notes
2. Lose their place
3. Lacks spontineity because it sounds memorized
4. No feedback, can't be interrupted.
1. Hearable by all
2. Voice must be natural
3. Capture Attention
4. Show emotion (Where appropriate)
Aspects of Vocalics
5. Ennunciation, Pronunciation, and Articulation
7. Vocal Variety
A range of pitches to create interest, make a point, and signal importance.
The speed of delivery that considers the topic and accomodates understanding
Intended silences. Always pause after a question, when making a point, and to create atmosphere or curiosity.
1. Project your voice to the depth and width of the audience.
2. Must hear every word clearly
3. Convey emotion, suspense, and importance.
Speaking each word clearly
Knowing how words sound.
Knowing what words mean.
Word flow, the smoothness of the delivery and rehearsal.
Using the other 6 things well.
Bodily Aspects of Kinesics
2. Facial Expression
3. Eye Contact
4. Stance/ Mannerisms
2. Use big gestures sparingly
Gesture no no
1. Hands in pockets
2. Hold anything
3. Touch your face or other body parts
4. Adjust your clothing
5. Fuss with your hair
6. Clasp your hands behind your back
Barometer of your feelings through eyebrows, eyes, and mouth.
Must be sustained and meaningful.
1. Too much constitutes staring.
2. Sections of the audience
3. Don't sweep with your eyes
4. Don't look at the same person all the time.
5. Never look over the audience's heads
6. Never turn your back to the audience
Stance and Mannerisms
1. Good posture
2. Plant your feet if not walking
3. Don't pace back and forth
4. Don't lean on anything
1. Fixed microphone
2. Podium (lecturn)
3. Size of the room
4. Where the audience is situated
1. Capture Attention
2. Can be graphic
3. Appeal to emotions
4. Can arouse curiosity
Types of Hooks
1. Tell a dramatic story
2. Ask a question
3. Refer to recent happening
4. Use humor
5. Using Audio visual aids or visual aids
6. Compliment the audience