APUSH Chapter 5 Vocab

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Mr. Straub's APUSH Vocab for Chapter 5

Right of deposit:

(with Spain) Us farmers had to pay to load an unload goods at the port of New Orleans, mouth of Mississippi

Nationalist

This group of leaders in the 1780s spearheaded the drive to replace the Articles of Confederation with a stronger central government.

Federal system

Delegates at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 agreed that the United States should have a federal system of government with both independent state governments and a national government with limited powers to handle matters of common interest.

Republican government

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 agreed that the United States should have a republican form of government drawing its authority from the people and remaining responsible to them. They agreed that ordinary citizens should share in the process of selecting those who were to make and execute the laws.

Equal and proportional representation

Delegates at the Constitutional Convention in 1787 debated having a national legislature chosen on the basis of equal representation with each state having equal voting strength, or proportional representation with each state's representation based on the size of its population. The debate ended in the Great Compromise

Checks and balances

The Constitution contains ingenious devices of countervailing power. These checks on centralized power balance the authority of government between the co-equal branches of the presidency, Congress, and the Supreme Court. This is sometimes called the separation of powers

Ratification

formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty

Funding at par

In his Report on Public Credit in 1791, Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton recommended that the national debt be funded at par. This meant calling in all outstanding securities and issuing new bonds of the same face value in their place, and establishing an untouchable sinking fund to assure payment of the interest and principal of the new bonds.

Implied powers

Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton defended his recommendation for the creation of a central Bank of the United States by arguing that although the Constitution granted no explicit power to Congress to create a bank, the authority could be implied from Congress's authority to tax, regulate trade, and provide for defense.

Elastic/necessary and proper clause

The elastic clause in the Constitution grants Congress the right to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the powers specifically granted to Congress by the Constitution. This clause was the source of Hamilton's implied powers doctrine

Strict construction

Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson held a strict construction of the Constitution claiming Congress was limited to making only laws that were necessary. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton held a loose construction of the Constitution (implied powers) claiming that Congress had the authority to pass all laws that were proper.

Loose construction

Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton held a loose construction of the Constitution (implied powers) claiming that Congress had the authority to pass all laws that were proper. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson held a strict construction of the Constitution claiming Congress was limited to making only laws that were necessary.

Shay's Rebellion

Daniel Shays, a veteran of the Battle of Bunker Hill, led an armed rebellion of western Massachusetts farmers to prevent state courts from foreclosing on debtors unable to pay their taxes. The rebellion convinced nationalists that to suppress or inhibit such rebellions, the nation needed a stronger national government

Philadelphia convention

Responding to calls for a stronger and more energetic national government, 55 delegates met in Philadelphia in the summer of 1787 to draft a new constitution to replace the ineffective Articles of Confederation.

Virginia and New Jersey plan

James Madison offered the Constitutional Convention the Virginia plan calling for proportional representation in Congress. James Paterson's New Jersey plan, hoping to protect the less populous states, called for equal representation in Congress for each state. The controversy was resolved in the Great Compromise.

Great compromise

A plan proposed by Roger Sherman of Connecticut at the 1787 Constitutional Convention for creating a national bicameral legislature, the Great Compromise proclaimed that, in the House of Representatives places were to be assigned according to a state's population (proportional representation) and filled by popular vote. In the Senate, each state was to have two members (equal representation) elected by its state legislature.

3/5 compromise

The Founding Fathers agreed that three-fifths of all slaves should be counted for purposes of both deciding a state's obligation for a direct federal tax, and for determining its population for representation in the House of Representatives.

Federalist papers

Alexander Hamilton, with the help of James Madison and John Jay wrote the "Federalist Papers," a brilliant series of essays explaining and defending the national government created by the Constitutional Convention of 1787

Bill of rights

The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the Constitution (adopted in 1791) that protect individual liberties and states' rights against the power of the national government; more generally, a bill of rights is a written summary of inalienable rights and liberties

Report on the Public Credit

In 1791 Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton issued a bold call for economic planning. His Report on Manufacturers called for tariffs and subsidies to encourage investment in American manufacturing. Congress rejected this proposal

Bank of the United States

In 1791 Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton proposed the creation of a joint public and private national bank to store government funds, collect and expend government revenue, and issue bank notes to serve as a national medium of exchange

Report on Manufactures

In 1791 Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton issued a bold call for economic planning. His Report on Manufacturers called for tariffs and subsidies to encourage investment in American manufacturing. Congress rejected this proposal

Proclamation of neutrality

When war broke out between England and France in 1793, President Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality committing the United States to be friendly and impartial toward both England and France.

Whiskey Rebellion

Western Pennsylvania farmers violently resisted paying the whiskey tax imposed by Hamilton's financial program. In 1794 they threatened to destroy Pittsburgh. Washington and Hamilton marshaled the full force of the army to suppress the rebellion, but the rebels had dispersed by the time the army arrived

Battle of Fallen Timbers

In 1794 General Anthony Wayne's army decisively defeated the Indians in Ohio and opened the way for settlement in the region

Jay's Treaty

John Jay negotiated a treaty with Britain in 1794 in which the British agreed to evacuate posts in the American northwest and settle some maritime disputes. Jay agreed to accept Britain's definition of America's neutral rights. The terms of the treaty provoked a storm of protest, but it was ratified in 1795.

Treaty of san Lorenzo/ Pinckney's Treaty

In the Treaty of San Lorenzo (also known as Pinckney's Treaty), Spain granted the United States free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right of deposit at New Orleans. It also settled the boundary dispute between Spanish Florida and the United States on terms favorable to the United States

Farewell Address

President Washington decided not to seek reelection in 1796. Near the end of his term he delivered a farewell address that warned the nation against the harmful effects of rivalry between political parties, and against the dangers of permanent alliances with foreign nations

XYZ Affair

Peace commissioners sent to France by President Adams in 1797 were insulted by their French counterparts' demand for a bribe as a condition for negotiating with American diplomats. America's tender sense of national honor was outraged and the affair led Federalists to demand war against France.

Alien and Sedition Acts

In 1798 the Federalist Congress passed the four acts collectively known as the Alien and Sedition Acts to attack the Republican party and suppress dissent against Federalist policies. The Acts curtailed freedom of speech and the liberty of foreigners resident in the United States.

Kentucky and Virginia Resolves

In response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolves. They argued that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional and that each state had a right to declare them null and void

Convention of 1800

In the convention of 1818 Britain and the United States agreed to the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory between Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains. The two nations also agreed to joint occupation of the Oregon country for ten years

Alexander Hamilton

Hamilton was the first Secretary of Treasury. He was the leading spokesman for strong national government, and organized the Federalist party

Founding Fathers

The Founding Fathers were the delegates to the Philadelphia Convention in 1787 that wrote the Constitution. Most were lawyers, planters, and businessmen, and most of them had previous political experience.

James Madison

Madison proposed the Virginia plan to the Constitutional Convention, coauthored the Federalist Papers, and helped Jefferson organize the Republican party. He wrote the Virginia Resolves and became president in 1809.

John Adams

Adams was Washington's vice-president and defeated Jefferson for the presidency in the election of 1796. He resisted his party's demand for war with France during his term

Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence, helped organize the Republican Party in the 1790s, and became the third president of the United States (1801-1809).

Electoral College

The Constitutional Convention adopted the Electoral College system as a method of electing presidents. Each state had electors equal in number to its representation in Congress. Each elector cast two votes for president, but if no candidate received a majority, the election would be decided in the House of Representatives

Federalists and Antifederalists

Federalists advocated ratification of the Constitution; they were centralizing nationalists. Antifederalists opposed ratification of the Constitution; they were states' rightists and were concerned that the Constitution contained no Bill of Rights

Federalist Party

One of the original two political parties, the Federalist party was organized by Alexander Hamilton and generally stood for strong national government, a mercantilistic economy, implied powers, and friendship with England

Republican Party

(Jeffersonian) One of the original two political parties, the Republican Party was organized by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson and generally stood for states' rights, an agrarian economy and the interests of farmers and planters over those of financial and commercial groups, strict construction, and friendship with France and support for the cause of the French Revolution

"Citizen" Genet

Genet was a special representative to the United States sent by the French government to seek support for the French Revolution. He was popularly received, but when he began recruiting ships and men for service to France, President Washington demanded his departure

John Jay

Jay was Chief Justice, a coauthor of the Federalist Papers, and negotiated the controversial Jay Treaty with England.

Thomas Pinckney

Pinckney negotiated the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney's Treaty) with Spain in 1795. It opened the Mississippi River to American trade and guaranteed Americans the right of deposit at New Orleans.

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