Nursing Fundamentals - Ethics

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Chapter 22

Autonomy

Commitment to include patients in decisions about care

Benficence

the best interests of the patient remain more important than self-interest

Justice

fairness

fidelity

agreement to keep promises and the unwillingness to abandom patients

Identify the four basic principles of the code of ethics

1) advocacy - health, safety, privacy 2) responsibility - I am responsible for my actions and those I delegate 3) accountability - my professional actions are explainable to boss/patient 4) confidentiality - HIPAA mandates protection of patients personal information

Define Value

personal belief about worth of given idea; will have to negotiate differences of opinion

Define Value Formation

influences on value formation: childhood/individual experiences, social institutions

Define Values Clarification

must be able to distinguish between fact, opinion and values. Sometimes when we are passionate about a particular topic we get confused between fact, opinion, and values

Define Deontology

Immanuel Kant; nursing philosophy, focuses on act rather than consequences; if an act is just, respects autonomy and provides good, it will be right/ethical

Define Utilarianism

nursing philosophy, measures the effect that an act will have

Define Feminish ethics

nursing philosphy, looks to nature if relationships to guide difficult decisions; especially relationship which power is unequal; tent to concentration on practical decisions

Define Ethich of Care

role of caring/feelings is important; also can focus on structures within which individual caring occurs such as health care facilities

To distinguish an ethical problem from other kinds of problems, the nurse must decide whether the problem has one or more of the following characteristics.

1) unable to resolve it through a review of scientific data 2) it is perplexing; can not make a decision about the problem; 3) answer to problem will serve to complement relationships within workplace 4) answer to problem will have profound relevance for areas of human concern

Identify the 7 guidelines for ethical processing and decision making

1) is it an ethical dilemma? 2) gather info relevant to case 3) clarify values (distinguish between fact, opinion, values) 4) verbalize problem 5) identify possible courses of action 6) negotiate a plan 7) evaluate plan over time

Identify the purposes of the ethics committee

educaiton, policy recommendations

Define accountability

state of being answerable for one's actions - a nurse answers to him/herself, patient, profession, employing institution, and society for the effectiveness of nursing care performed

Define advocacy

Process whereby a nurse objectively provides patients with the information they need to make decisions and supports the patients in whatever decisions they make.

Define autonomy

Ability or tendency to function independently.

Define beneficence

Doing good or actively promoting doing good; one of the four principles of the ethical theory of deontology.

Define Code of Ethics

Formal statement that delineates a profession's guidelines for ethical behavior. A code of ethics sets standars or expectations for the professional to achieve.

Define Confidentiality

Act of keeping information private or secret; in health care the nurse only shares information about a patient with other nurses or health care providers who ned to know private information aobut a patient to provide care for him or her; infomration can only be shared with the patient's consent.

Define consequentialism

another name for utilitarianism

Define Deontology

Traditional theory of ehtics that proposes to define actions as right or wrong based on the characteristics of fidelity to promises, truthfulness, and justice. The conventional use of ethical terms such as justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence constitutes the practice of deontology.

Define Ethics

Principles or standards that govern proper conduct

Define Ethics of care

Delivery of health care based on ethical principles and standards of care

Define Fidelity

Agreement to keep a promise

Define Justice

Ethical standard of fairness

Define Nonmaleficence

Fundamental ethical agreement to do no harm. Cosely related to the ethical standard of beneficence

Define Responsibility

Carrying out duties associated with a particular role

Define Utilitarianism

Ethic tha tproposs that the value of something is determined by its usefulness. The greatest good for the greatest number of people constitutes the guiding principle for action in a utilitarian model of ethics.

Define Value

Personal belief about the worth of a given idea or behavior.

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