Corners of life that people occupy; Jobs, social class, race, and occupation
Founder of sociology
1st sociologist to advocate positivism
Disagreed with Comte that sociology should guide reform
societies evolve from lower to higher forms
Coined the phrase "Survival of the fittest"
1st professor of sociology
Religion is the central force of social change
Known for translating Comte's work from French to English
Published "Society in America" before Durkheim and Weber were born
1st African American to earn a PHD from Harvard
Published a book every year from 1896-1914 on race relations between blacks and whites
Founded the N.A.A.C.P.
Worked tirelessly for social justice
co-founded Hull House in 1889
campaigned against child labor
C. Wright Mills
Urged sociologists to get back to reform
believed our freedom was being threatened by the "Power Elite"
used to solve problems
face to face interactions
Relationships among parts of society
Structure of society
Founded the Conflict Theory
The struggle for scarce resources by groups in a society
One of the most commonly used methods of sociological research
What are the two factors that surveys must be?
Random and representative of the population
What are the advantages of surveys?
The researcher is able to reach a large number of people at one time
What are the disadvantages of surveys?
Low response rates and people may not be truthful
The researcher observes individuals and they are aware of his presence
The researcher observes individuals without the knowledge of his presence
Eight Basic Steps to Sociological Research
1. Select a topic
2. Define the problem
3. Review the literature
4. Formulate a hypothesis
5. Choose a research method
6. Collect the data
7. Analyze the results
8. Share the results
Language, beliefs, values, norms, and behavior passed from one generation to the next
"Our culture is the best"
Coming into contact with a culture different from our own
understanding a culture practices from perspectives
unnatural (clothes, jewelery, art, buildings, weapons, hairstyles)
Symbols, gestures, languages, norms, and values
A groups way of thinking (beliefs, values, and assumptions about the world)
Expectations or rules for behavior
Reactions to following or breaking norms
Norms that are not enforced
Norms when broken go against societies basic core values
Norms when broken are considered repulsive
A world within a dominant culture whose norms and values DO NOT clash with the dominant cultures
A world within a dominant culture whose norms and values DO clash with the dominant cultures
Values that are similar
Values that contradict
5 Emerging Values
3. Physical fitness
5. Concern for the environment
values, norms, and goals that are ideal
What does technology do to culture?
Sets the frame work for non material culture
Spreading cultural characteristis to another culture
when cultures become similar
What is the age range for Childhood?
From birth to about age 12
What is the age range for adolescence?
From ages 13-17
What is the age range for Transitional adulthood?
From ages 18-29
What is the age range for middle years?
From ages 29-65
What is the age range for older years?
From ages 65 and up
Large scale features
Focus on social interactions
What do status divide people by?
4. Status held
Behaviors associated with ones status
People who regularly and consciously interact and think of themselves as belonging together
means developed by societies to meet basic needs
What are the four levels of personal space?
What are their distances?
Public- 12ft and further
Conflict between separate roles
A strain within the same role
The study of how people use background assumptions to get through everyday life