chapter 24 - Neurosurgery

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Acoustic Neuroma

includes loss of hearing
ex. headache,vertigo and facial pain
it includes the auditory acoustic(eight cranial nerve)

Spina Bifida

(dysraphism)
is a failure of the body structures around the neutral tube to closed properly during embryonic development.

Spondylosis

stiffness of a vertebrae joint.

Craniosynostosis

premature closure of the sutures of the infant skull

Papaverine

direct smooth muscle relaxant that is injected into corpus cavernosum, and is usually used together with phentolamine User-contributed

CUSA

cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator
fragment and emulsifies a tumor ultrasonically while irrigating and aspirating the resulting debris it high.

ICP

intracranial pressure

Trigeminal Opthalmic

sensory nerve transmit stimuli from the mucosa of the nose pharnyx upper lip, teeth, palate

Trigeminal Maxillary

stimuli from uppr eyelid cornea, lacrimal nasal cavity, side of the nose, and the forehead.

Trigeminal Mandibular

mixed stimuli from the anterior tongue and lower teeth and mores tthte muscles.

Circle of willis

ring of arteries that gives rise to the various branches supplying blood to the brain.

Epidural Hematoma

collection of blood above the dura mater

Subdural Hematoma

collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges)

Sphenoid Bone

Bone that is on the interior portion of the skull and holds the base of the brain

Thalamus

the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla

Gray matter

greyish nervous tissue containing cell bodies as well as fibers

Ideal temperature for irrigation fluid that willl be used intracranially?

they use normal body temperature

How many cranial nerves

12

How many spinal nerves

31

What is a hemostatic clamp use in craniotomy procedure?

Dandy

Benign tumor are totally insized by what kind of procedure?

craniotomy

what kind of suture are use in craniotomy procedure ?

4-0 silk, and 4-0 nylon

the midbrain is located between

Dencephalon and pons

function of the hypothalamus?

regulates hemostatis

3 primary function of the nervous system

sensory, intergrative, and motor

name the three trigeminal nerves

trigeminal opthalmic, trigeminal maxillary, and trigeminal mandibular

where is the CSF formed? how is it form?

specialized capillaries called choroid plexuses produced approx. 800ml of CSF a day
- choroid plexuses produce CSF by filtration of plasma

three meningeal layers

Dura mater, Arachnoid mater,Pia mater

causes of Hydrocephalus

obstruction,overproduction, and malabsorption

what absorbs the CSF fluid?

Arachnoid villi

what kind of procedure relieves congenital abnormalities?

craniosynotosis, neurogocele, spinabifida

what kind of procedure relieve injured or diseased peripheral nerves?

carpol tunnel syndrome

what relieves pain

herniated disc, vertebral fix

to relieve pressure on the brain and spinal cord

herniated disc, and vertibral fracture

remove pathological lesion

tumors, abscess, aneurysm
thydrocephalos, subdural hematoma

what does the CSF contain?

colorless fluid contains small amounts of protein, glucose, lactic acid, urea, and potassium as well as a relatively large amount of sodium chloride.

papaverine

Vasodilator relaxes smooth muscle in arterial wall stops vasospasm

two seperated mayo stand needed for Transsphenoidal Procedure

-access to the pituitary is gained through the mouth and nose which are considered nonsterile.
-therefore the nasal instrument are isolated on one mayo stand.

type of obstruction of the aqueducts between the ventricles that can lead to hydrocephalus.

scarring, tumor, inflammation, edema

name radiographic techniques to identify spinal disorder

ct-scan, MRI, x-ray

three classification (location) of spinal cord tumors

intramedullary, intradural, extradural

causes of growth hormones overproduction

caused by a tumor on the anterior part of the pituitary gland

most common type of brain tumors?

glioma- account for 40% of primary brain tumors

three types of teh subdural hematoma

acute, subacute, and chronic

mayfield pin-fixation device used

position and stabilizing the head and neck during surgical intervention.

two approaches that can be used for surgery of the pituitary

craniotomy, transphenoidal

what position is the patient placed for a craniotomy procedure?

sitting or prone

method by which the bone flap is secured to the cranium

wire, suture, plate, screw fixation

most common cause for epiglottis?

haemophilus influenza

the use of screw and plate geometry to apply force at the fracture site?(type of compression)

dynamics

what articulates with the head of the femur?

acetabulum

the name of the second vertibrae?

axis

which type of cell break down and assimulates bone?

osteoclast

the distal end of long bone is called

epiphysis

which bone is posterior to the mandible and anterior to the trachea

hyoid bone

manipulating bone fragments without ensizing the skin

CRIF (closed reduction internal fixation)

meaning of apnea?

cessation of breathing

another name for 7th cranial nerve

facial nerve

the usage of nitrousoxide in during recontructive ear surgery

not use in ear (because it expands the ear)

what is the hyoid bone attached to?

tongue and neck

what tonsil are removed while having tonsillectomy?

palatine tonsil and facial tonsil

what is hydrops?

abnormal commulation of clear water fluid in the tissue of osmotically active components

what is olfactory nerve?

sense of smell

term for nose bleeding?

epitaxis

what is the pharynx?

throat

whata is glottis?

a small opening between the true vocal cords

which structure articulates with the distal clavicle and provides attachment for muscle from arm and chest

acroniom process

what is the graft taken from the (cadaver)

allograft

what muscle is part of the rotater cuff?

infraspinatus, subcapularis, suprapinatus, and teres minos

primary purpose of meniscus surgery

save as much of torned meniscus as possible

which piece of equipment would not typically be used during a knee arthroscopy

insufflator

patient is scheduled from an anterior cruciate ligament repair. the surgeon plans to use the patient patellar tendon. this examples which type of graft

autograft

what is the primary reason for performing a total joint arthroplasty

degenerative joint disease

manipulating bone fracture fragment into alignment with out incision thte skin is called

closed reduction

what type of cast material is in expensive light weight and strong?

fiberglass

the lowest tracheal cartilage that form between right and left

carina

inituitve step for bone fracture

hemorrhage and inflammation

cholesteoma

benign growth of skin in an abnormal location (middle ear)

tympanoplasty

surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear

apex

another name for nose

the main source of blood supply to the nose

maxillary artery

what structure divides the nasall cavity

septum

septoplasty

surgical repair of the nasal septum

rhinoplasty

cosmetic surgery to improve the appearance of your nose

the primary reason for total repair of arthroplasty

restore mobility, relieve pain, deformity

exampple of irregular bone

genovarum, genu valgum, talipse valgus, talipse varus

which ligament originates from anterior internaculila (middle of tubia)

anterior cruciate ligament ACL

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses

congenital

existing at birth

plantar flexion

Bending of the foot at the ankle in a downward direction

the end of which bone atriculates with the manubrium

clavicle

major concern when operating on the parotid gland

facial nerve

the instrument use to pass a prostesis oro a garft in ear surgery

alligator ear forcep (alligator)

what part of the pharynx is more superior

nasopharynx

rhinitis

inflammation of the nose

sclerosis

any pathological hardening or thickening of tissue

deafness

partial or complete loss of hearing

otitis media

inflammation of the middle ear

hip spica cast

surrounds both legs,trunk

what typpe of digestive enzyme are found in the saliva

amalyse

adenoid

relating to or resembling lymphatic glands or lymphoid tissue

hypertrophy

abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ

CN1

olfactory (smell)

CN2

optic (vision)

CN3

oculomotor (eye movement)

CN4

trochlear (eye movement, downward)

CN5

trigeminal (chewing)

CN6

abducens (looking out to the side)

CN7

FACIAL/ FACIAL EXPRESSIONS

CN8

vestibulocochlear (hearing and balance)

CN9

glossopharyngeal (swallowing)

CN10

vagus; internal organ functions

CN11

spinal accessory or accessory; upper traps and SCM

CN12

hypoglossal (tongue movements)

intramedullary

pertaining to within the marrow

intradural

perineal plain

extradural

outside of the dura mater (adj.)

which two of the muscle are use as autograft for easier ACL reconstruction

hanstring, and quadracile

procedure to perform a m pigment syndrome?

acromioplasty

which instrumenr is ised to remove excess bone from thet femoral tunnel (shaft)

rongeur

define CNS

the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord

define ANS

the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands

AXIAL

head neck and trunk 80 bones

appendicular

upper and lower limbs

ligament

Connects bone to bone

tendon

strong connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

ankylosis

abnormal condition of stiffness

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa

hallux valgus

an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe (bunion)

acronium

lateral triangular projection of the spine of the scapula that form the point of shoulder

bone cement

Polymethyl methacrylate is used to secure and cement some orthopedic implants. It is highly toxic to OR staff and exposure can produce: eye irritation, skin irritation, depression of the central nervous system. Respiratory tract irritation. Preg. woman should not be present in OR during mix of the bone cement.

iliac crest

best bone graft (usually taken)

at the distal end the tibia expends to form a promysence

medical mallelous

talus

the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint

communited

fractue in which the bone is broken or splintered into pieces

humerus

bone extending from the shoulder to the elbow

what suture use to attached tendon to bone

polyester(ethibond)
polypropylen(prolene)

scoliosis

lateral curvature of the spine

hemostatic agent

gelfoam, avitenne, thrombin, bone wax

epinephrine

vasocontrusion

UPPP

surgical resection of unnecessary palatal and oropharyngeal tissue to open the airway (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty)

cervical

7

thoracic

12

spinal column

26

during a myringotomy, pressure equalizing tube are

picked up and inserted with hartman froceps

which two of the following muscle are used for an autograftt ACL reconstruction

semitendinous, gracilis

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