A Spanish ruler who unwillingly signs the Peace of augsburg in 1555. He is the richest man alive in territory. He later retires to a monestary and splits up his kingdom. His 3 problems were keeping the Muslims out, the French, and stopping the spread of Protestantism.
A spanish ruler who was originally married to Queen Mary tudor, and launches a spanish armada to punish the English Protestants, but he fails
there were storms, poor supplies, unfamiliar waters, a long journey, the ships were not fast or maneuverable, the army is 2 weeks late, and the leader is a military leader not a naval leader.
fast maneuverabe ships, fire ships, they knew the waters, and strong naval leaders
strong formation (crescent), San martin is a strong lead ship, Philip II is a strong king
aka Domenikos Theotokopoulos. An artist originally from spain who uses confusing, clashing colors with distorted human figures and the Catholic faith
An artist who reflects spanish monarchy pride, who also creates good royal portraits.
Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote, a story about a man who goes crazy and thinks he is a knight after reading a knight novel.
Spanish economic troubles
Spain's population is growing and silver is more common, causing inflation. Spain also expels moors and jews from Spain in 1500, who are the major labor force. The Spanish nobles also do not pay taxes
The protestant leader is William of Orange, who asks Elizabeth for secret help. The Netherlands is declared independent 1581, but they are not recognized until 1648
Rembrandt Van Rijn
He created portraits for middle class merchants, using the contrasts of light and dark
He drew domestic indoor settings with women doing familiar activities, he reveals important merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class
the belief that God created the monarchy and that they act as God's representative on earth, they answer not only to God but also to the subjects
Catherine de Medicis
She preserves royal authority, she is the power behind the throne, Her 2 problems were the guizas and the huguenots. she makes a deal with henry of navarre and is he cause of the civil wars of France.
Henry of Navarre
leader of the huguenots, who converts to catholicism, becomes King Henry IV of France in 1589. He was controversial, but a good king. He creates the edict of nantes in 1598 and wanted to rebuild France. He is killed in 1610.
Edict of Nantes
Created in 1598 by Henry IV. This gives religious toleration and Freedom to the Huguenots. They can live in peace in France, hold public office, and had less of a tax burden
the weak son of Henry IV. He is not old enough to rule so Cardinal Richelieu is his regent. he resigns from royalty and lets Richelieu call all of the shots.
He is the leader of the Catholic church in France. His 2 goals were to lessen the power of the nobles and huguenots and to make France the most powerful country by destorying the hapsburgs. He puts france in the 30 years war.
Richelieu's successor, who ends the 30 years war. people did not like him and protested him.
He begins to rule in 1643 when he is 14. He sets the standard for European court life. He is an absolute monarch with a big ego ("the sun king" "I am the State"). He weakens the power of the nobles. He is assisted by Jean Baptiste Colbert in economic success, but causes economic tumoil when he cancels the edict of nantes. He spent a lot of money on court and the arts. He has 4 wars trying to expand France to its natural boundaries but he fails. he dies in 1715
30 years war
(1618 - 1648) Protestants vs. Catholics. Begins with the Bohemian Revolt. The leader of the Protestants is Gustavus Adolphus. The leader of the Catholics is the HRE. The French join the Protestants towards the end of the war, making it a political war. It is ended with the peace of Westphalia in 1648.
Peace of Westphalia
1648- weakens the Hapsburg states, strengthens france (they get more territory),
became ruler in 1711, It was a hard empire to rule because there is such a diverse group of people. He does not have a male heir, but he forces the goverment to sign an agreement declaring his daughter Maria Theresea as the leader of Austria.
She had a reign full of wars, mainly with Prussia. She had 9 kids, one of them being Marie Antoinette.
inherited the title of Great Elector in 1640. He made a strong army, but he makes the people pay big taxes to pay for the army. He gives the skeptical Junkers a high position in the army to convince them. he is not a good father
Frederick the Great
he believed that a ruler should be like a father. They still had a strong military, but he believed in religious tolerataion.
War of Austrian Succession
Frederick wants the borderlands of Austria. He underestimates MT. He sends an army in in 1740. MT gets help from Great Britain and Hungary. Prussia gets help from France. It ends in he Treaty Aiz-la-chapelle
Austria loses Silesia. Prussia becomes a major european power, they really take over poland.
A ruler of Russia who liberated the Russians from the Mongols and centralized the russian government
Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible)
came to power in 1533. he had many great victories and added land to russia. Anastasia dies in 1560. He accuses the boyars of poisoning her, so he turns against his own court. He killed is son and heir in 1581 and died himself in 1584
Peter the Great
A czar of Russia with many attempts against his life. He goes on a journey to Western Europe in 1607 as he loved ships and modern technoology. He reduces the power of landowners, gets a labor force from Europe. He hires European army officers to modernize his army.He creates St. Petersburg in 1703 and he dies in 1725.
Ruler of England who has many fights with the Parliament, mainly over money. She died in 1603, leaving a big debt and no children.
King James I
Rules from 1603-1625. He also struggles with the parliament over money. He also offended many puritan members of parliament
King Charles I
A king who called parliament in 1628 and signed the petition of Right, but ignores it. He disolves parliament in 1629. His popularity decreases as he taxes the citizens a lot. He forces Anglican onto Presbyterian Scots.He tries to arrest parliament members for trying to limit his power. He was executed in 1649.