the study of carbon-based molecules
is the simplest organic compound
are the groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions
four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
a chemical reaction that removes molecules from water
means to break (lyse) with water (hydro)
is commonly known as "carbs," are sugars or sugar polymers.
simple sugars, that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugars. Common examples are glucose and fructose.
glucose and fructose are examples of molecules that have the same molecular form but different structures.
or double ringed sugars is contracted from two monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction. Lactose is one that is made from the monosaccharide glucose and galactose.
are complex carbohydrates that are long chains of sugar units - polymers of monosaccharides, One example is starch
consist of many glucose monomers strung together.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
organic compounds that are hydrophobic that don't mix with water
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
fatty acids that has fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location of a double bonds
fatty acids that contain the maximum number if hydrogen atoms
type of unsaturated fat that is even less healthy than saturated fat
are classified as lipids because they are hydrophobic, which are different from fat in structure and function
is a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers
small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein
chain of linked amino acids
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
is the loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
are macromolecules that provide the directions for building proteins
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
sequence of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
nucleic acids are polymers made from monomers
a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate, with the bases (A,T,C, or G)hanging off the backbone like an appendage.
a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis