four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain
simple sugars, that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugars. Common examples are glucose and fructose.
glucose and fructose are examples of molecules that have the same molecular form but different structures.
or double ringed sugars is contracted from two monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction. Lactose is one that is made from the monosaccharide glucose and galactose.
are complex carbohydrates that are long chains of sugar units - polymers of monosaccharides, One example is starch
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids
fatty acids that has fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location of a double bonds
are classified as lipids because they are hydrophobic, which are different from fat in structure and function
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate, with the bases (A,T,C, or G)hanging off the backbone like an appendage.