Biology 10: Chapter 3

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Organic Compounds

the study of carbon-based molecules

Hydrocarbons

is the simplest organic compound

Functional Groups

are the groups of atoms that usually participate in chemical reactions

Macromolecules

four main classes of large biological molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids)

Polymers

a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar molecular units, called monomers, covalently joined together in a chain

Monomers

small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers

Dehydration reaction

a chemical reaction that removes molecules from water

Hydrolysis

means to break (lyse) with water (hydro)

Carbohydrates

is commonly known as "carbs," are sugars or sugar polymers.

Monosaccharides

simple sugars, that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis into smaller sugars. Common examples are glucose and fructose.

Isomers

glucose and fructose are examples of molecules that have the same molecular form but different structures.

Disaccharides

or double ringed sugars is contracted from two monosaccharides through a dehydration reaction. Lactose is one that is made from the monosaccharide glucose and galactose.

Polysaccharides

are complex carbohydrates that are long chains of sugar units - polymers of monosaccharides, One example is starch

Starch

consist of many glucose monomers strung together.

Glycogen

An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.

Lipids

organic compounds that are hydrophobic that don't mix with water

Fat

organic compound consisting of a three-carbon backbone (glycerol) attached to three fatty acids

Triglyceride

Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

Unsaturated

fatty acids that has fewer than the maximum number of hydrogens at the location of a double bonds

Saturated

fatty acids that contain the maximum number if hydrogen atoms

Trans fat

type of unsaturated fat that is even less healthy than saturated fat

Steroids

are classified as lipids because they are hydrophobic, which are different from fat in structure and function

Proteins

is a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers

Amino acids

small units that are linked together chemically to form large protein molecules

Peptide bond

A bond that links amino acids together in a protein

Polypeptide

chain of linked amino acids

Primary structure

The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.

Denaturation

is the loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor

Nucleic acids

are macromolecules that provide the directions for building proteins

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.

RNA

ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis

gene

sequence of DNA that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide

Nucleotides

nucleic acids are polymers made from monomers

sugar-phosphate backbone

a repeating pattern of sugar-phosphate-sugar-phosphate, with the bases (A,T,C, or G)hanging off the backbone like an appendage.

double helix

a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axis

Flickr Creative Commons Images

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