Carboxylic acid or acid group
What type of materials has the carboxyl (COOH) group?
What very common organic molecule has both a carboxyl group and an amine group?
What level or amount of H+ would you expect to find in the small intestine?
High. Intestine dissolve fat; pH8--base
Polar molecules _______ soluble
What HYDROCARBONS are made of?
contain only carbon and hydrogen
-ane (methane, ethane)
-ol (methanol, ethanol, glycerol)
-ose (glucose, fructose)
What are carbohydrates?
* animal's major source of energy
* can break it into sugars and starches
* repeating O-H-OH
building blocks of large molecules
have 2 connected simple sugars (with O)
many connected sugars:
* starch (in plants)
* cellulose (plants)
* glycogen (animal starch)
* chitin (mushrooms, insects)
mono-, di- or poly-?
C6 H12 O6
What are LIPIDS?
Long chains of CH2
Based on FATTY ACIDS
What is fatty acid?
Long chains of CH2 with an acid head (COOH-).
Fat molecules have___
* a polar head -- fat soluble (COOH-)
* a long non-polar tail -- water soluble
Is cholesterol oil or water soluble?
The head of cholesterol molecule is polar; therefore, it's water soluble.
The tail is non-polar; therefore, it's oil soluble.
What portion of every fat molecule is the same and what is different?
Head (GLYCEROL) is the same in EVERY fat molecule.
Tail (fatty acid) different.
What are different types of fatty acids?
* Saturated (-C-C-)
* Unsaturated (-C=C-)
What is saturated fatty acid?
In this fatty acid each carbon atom binds to as many hydrogen atoms as possible.
Has high melting point
What is unsaturated fatty acid?
FA that have one or more double carbon bonds
Low melting point
Why is vegetable oil liquid?
It has double bond between its carbon atoms. Therefore, fat molecules cannot align close to each other.
What type of fat is solid at room T and why is it solid?
Its fatty acids have single bonds between its carbon atoms. It allows cholesterol molecules align close to each other.
What are phospholipids?
The major structural components of cell membrane
Soluble at one end and insoluble at the other.
What phospholipids are made of?
2 fatty acids
Phosphate group attached to a glycerol molecule
What is protein?
* structural material
* energy source
* chemical messenger
What protein is made of?
Blocks of AMINO ACIDS
(NH2 amine group)
What are enzymes?
* proteins that speed up chemical reactions without being used up themselves
What are polypeptides?
Chains of amino acids in protein molecule
What an amino acid is made of?
* Amine group (NH2)
* Acid group (COOH)
* Functional group
**Everything connected to CARBON atom***
How many R groups occur in animals?
How many are essential?
What makes a protein fold?
How many enzymes in the body?
How does temperature and pH affect proteins?
Proteins loose their shape, change structure and color.
Nucleic acid made of
Where Nucleic Acids are used?
What are 4 DNA bases