# PSYC 2001

### 91 terms by dgagnon

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### Descriptive statistics

Provide an accurate summary of the important aspects of your data using as few numbers as possible

### Inferential statistics

Uses to make inferences or generalizations from data collected from observing a small sample

### Mean, Median, Mode

Measures of central tendency

### Standard deviation, variance, range

Measures of dispersion

### Person's product moment correlation coefficient

Measures of relationship

### Mode

Applicable to data measured on any scales. Which one is the most common?

### Median

Is not applicable to nominal scale data. Which one is in the middle

### Mean

not applicable to nominal or ordinal scale data. Is known as the average. Formula looks like this M=Ex/n

### M

In mean formula; meaning the value of the X's

### E

In mean formula; Meaning "Sigma" = Add together all subsequent values

### x

In mean formula; meaning the area where numbers are insert

### n

In mean formula; meaning the number of observations

### Measures of variance

How much the score in a distribution differ from the measure of central tendency

### Range

Difference between biggest and smallest score

### Variance

Add all deviation scores and divide by the number of deviation scores

### Deviation scores

The difference between each score (X) and the mean of all scores (M)

### Variance formula

s^2=∑(X-M)^2 ÷n-1; Sum of the squares of the deviations about the mean, divided by the number of scores minus 1

### Standard deviation

Square root if the variance; =s=√(∑(X-M)^2÷n-1

### BEDMAS

Bracket, Exponent, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

### PODMAS

Parentheses, power Of, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

### Descriptive, correlational, nonexperimental research strategy

Three types of nonexperimental research

### Descriptive research strategy

Not looking at the relationship between two variables but looking at the state of a variable or variables.

### Data analysis for Descriptive RS

Use descriptive statistics to summarize a variable for a group of individual

### Correlational research strategy

Correlation between two variables, Measurement of two or more interval or ratio scale variables across many levels

### Data analysis for Correlational RS

Data are analyzed by correlation analysis

### Nonexperimental research strategy

Examining a relationship between two variable by looking for a difference between two treatment condition

### Data analysis for Nonexperimental RS

Measure of a single dependent variable in two or moregroups

### Measurement validity

Is the measurement measuring what you wanted to measure

### Internal and External Validity

Two types of experimental validity

### Internal Validity

The cause and effect is caused only by the variables that are measured

### External Validity

Can you generalize this relationship between variables beyond the experiment

### experimental design

high internal validity, low external validity

### nonexperimental design

low internal validity, high external validity

### Generalization

The process by which we translate specific results into broad and general principles

### Rule one of generalization

Controlled comparison rule; Do we have internal validity

### Rule two of generalization

Sampling rule; Do we have external validity

### Rule three of generalization

Operational definitions rule; Precisely what principle do we generalize

### Extraneous variables

Additional variables (other than IV & DV) that can influence the research study, but are not under direct investigation

### Confounding variables

Uncontrolled variables that systematically change with the IV, and which could therefore systematically affect the DV

### Obscuring variables

Factor which make changes in the DV hard to observe

### Ineffective manipulation

Insufficient manipulation of the ID, resulting in no detectable change in the DV

### Measurement error

Low measurement reliability can result in making of the effects of the IV manipulation. Poor instruments and poor training can create low reliability

### Ceiling effect

DV can't go any higher

### Floor effect

DV can't go any lower

### observational research

The researcher observe how people normally behave

### Naturalistic observation

Use a variety of approaches to collect data on range of different behaviours in different times and places

### Systematic observation

Researcher makes observation of one or more specific behaviours in a particular setting

### Descriptive observational research

Each individual scores on a given measure of behaviour

### Correlational observation research

Each individual scored on at least two measures of behaviour, to determine if the variables are correlated

### Nonexperimental observation research

A least two groups of individuals are scored on one or more behaviours, to determine if there are differences between groups

### Disguised participant observation

Research interacts with the participants, but the participants do no know that they are being observed

### Ethology

Branch of biology that deals with the study of behaviour

### Archival research

Research using data which was not collecting by the researcher

### Type of archival research data

Statistical records, survey achieves, Written and mass communication record

### Statistical records

Collected by a range of public and private organizations

### Survey archives

Data from previous survey are often available to researchers

### Written and mass communication records

Anything else for which there are records

### Content analysis

Make recording of data both objective and systematic

### Case study

Examine individual instances or cases

### Four stages of conducting survey research

Develop questions, organize the questions into the full survey, select participants to be targeted in the survey, administer the survey

### Develop questions

Open-ended questions, restricted questions, rating scale questions

### Open-ended questions

A question where the respondent can give any answer they like

### Restricted questions

A question where there is a limited number of potential responses

### Rating scale question

A question asking participants to respond by selecting a specific numerical value on a predetermined scale

A scale measuring the agreeableness/disagreeableness within a statement (1-don't agree - 5-agree)

### Rating scale questions

A question where the answer is no limited to a 5 point

### Nonverbal scales

A scale good for children (happy face to sad face)

### Graphic rating scale

A question where the answer is answered with locating on a line

### Cross-sectional design

Data is collected at one time only

### Successive independent sample design

A series of cross-selection survey

### Longitudinal/panel design

Same set of people are surveyed multiple times

### Population

Everyone in which you are interested

### Sample

Individuals who take part in the study

### Sample size

Larger samples will generalize more accurately to the population

### Probability (random) sample

Minimize systematic bias in the sample by randomly selecting the participants

### Simple random sampling

Every time you select an individual for a sample, each person must have an equal and constant probability of selection

### Systematic sampling

A type of random sampling that is similar to simple random sampling

### Stratified random sampling

The sampling avoids random bias in the sample by making subgroup and doing a simple random sampling within the subgroups

### Nonprobability sampling

Sample is not selected at random

### Convenience sampling

A nonprobability sampling that samples the first person they can find

### Quota sampling

Type of nonprobability sample that hand-pick participants to represent certain characteristic

### Basic experimental design

Experiment with only two variables

### Between-subject design

Different participants are assigned randomly to each of the two groups

### Posttest experiment design

Get sample - Manipulate the IV - Measure the DV

### Pretest-posttest experimental design

Get sample - Measure the DV - Manipulate the IV - Measure the DV

### Solomon four-group design

Get sample - random assign to posttest experiment or pretest -posttest design - follow each step for the designs

### Withing-subject design

All individuals experience all treatment conditions, and are measured multiple times

### Counterbalancing

Split the sample randomly to two groups - both group experience the manipulation but on the opposite time

### Latin square

The box with all the samples experience everything

Example: