Psych Chapter 5

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Bryan Gibson Central michigan

Dr. Matsuko's major research interest is the long-term effects of child-rearing practices on the psychological adjustment of offspring. It is most likely that Dr. Matsuko is a(n) ________ psychologist.

A. Cognitive

B. Developmental

C. Biological

D. Psychodynamic

B. Developmental

Nutrients and oxygen are transferred from a mother to her developing fetus through the

A. Embryo.

B. Ovaries.

C. Teratogens.

D. Placenta.

D. Placenta.

Infants' tendency to gaze longer at novel stimuli than at familiar ones provides compelling evidence regarding their

A. Self-concepts.

B. Egocentrism.

C. Stranger anxiety.

D. Memory capacities.

D. Memory capacities.

The importance of schemas was most clearly highlighted by

A. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

B. Piaget's cognitive development theory.

C. Harlow's attachment theory.

D. Kohlberg's moral development theory.

B. Piaget's cognitive development theory.

Two closed, pyramid-shaped beakers containing clearly identical amounts of a liquid are judged by a child to hold different amounts after one of the beakers is inverted. The child apparently lacks a

A. Sense of object permanence.

B. Concept of conservation.

C. Capacity for habituation.

D. Secure attachment.

B. Concept of conservation.

A child's realization that others may have beliefs that the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of

A. object permanence.

B. egocentrism.

C. a theory of mind.

D. stranger anxiety.

C. a theory of mind.

The process of imprinting occurs during a brief developmental phase known as

A. menarche.

B. puberty.

C. menopause.

D. a critical period.

D. a critical period.

Although 3-year-old Adam happily explores the attractive toys located in the dentist's waiting room, he periodically returns to his mother's side for brief moments. Adam most clearly displays signs of

A. secure attachment.

B. object permanence.

C. egocentrism.

D. conservation

A. secure attachment.

"I don't care whether you want to wash the dishes, you will do so because I said so!" This statement is most representative of a(n) ________ parenting style.

A. preconventional

B. authoritative

C. formal operational

D. authoritarian

D. authoritarian

Mark believes that choosing to violate government laws is morally justifiable if it is done to protect the lives of innocent people. Kohlberg would suggest that this illustrates ________ morality.

A. conventional

B. unconventional

C. preconventional

D. postconventional

D. postconventiona

Jessica acts so differently with her parents than with her girlfriends that she often thinks her personality is completely phony. Erik Erikson would have suggested that Jessica is experiencing

A. egocentrism.

B. insecure attachment.

C. role confusion.

D. fluid intelligence.

C. role confusion.

A public initiation into adult responsibilities and status is called a

A. social clock.

B. critical period.

C. rite of passage.

D. formal operational stage.

C. rite of passage.

Compared to a century ago, menarche occurs ________ in life and adult independence begins ________ in life.

A. later; later

B. earlier; earlier

C. later; earlier

D. earlier; later

D. earlier; later

A researcher who administers a personality test to the same children every 3 years as they progress through school is conducting a(n) ________ study.

A. longitudinal

B. experimental

C. cross-sectional

D. chronological

A. longitudinal

Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of

A. continuity or stages.

B. fluid or crystallized intelligence.

C. stability or change.

D. nature or nurture.

C. stability or change.

For the unborn children of mothers who smoke heavily, nicotine is a(n)

A. agonist.

B. depressant.

C. teratogen.

D. hallucinogen.

C. teratogen.

By a week after birth, infants are able to distinguish between their mothers' and strangers'

A. faces.

B. voices.

C. body odors.

D. tender touches.

C. body odors.

After Nadia learned that penguins can't fly, she had to modify her existing concept of birds. This best illustrates the process of

A. conservation.

B. assimilation.

C. habituation.

D. accommodation.

D. accommodation.

During Piaget's sensorimotor stage, children acquire a

A. theory of mind.

B. concept of conservation.

C. sense of object permanence.

D. capacity for abstract reasoning.

C. sense of object permanence.

Deficient social interaction and an impaired understanding of others' states of mind is most characteristic of

A. autism.

B. menarche.

C. crystallized intelligence.

C. object permanence.

A. autism.

Marissa resents the burden and constraints of caring for her infant daughter and frequently ignores her cries for attention. As a consequence, her daughter is most likely to display signs of

A. egocentrism.

B. accommodation.

C. insecure attachment.

D. conservation.

C. insecure attachment.

Female breasts are to ________ as male testes are to ________.

A. menarche; menopause

B. menopause; menarche

C. secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

D. primary sex characteristics; secondary sex characteristics

C. secondary sex characteristics; primary sex characteristics

Jarrud thinks he should obey his teachers only if they are carefully watching him. Kohlberg would suggest that Jarrud demonstrates a(n) ________ morality.

A. conventional

B. unconventional

C. preconventional

D. postconventional

C. preconventional

The sexual abuse of a very young child is so emotionally repulsive to most people that they immediately recognize it as shamefully immoral. This best illustrates that moral judgments may reflect

A. habituation.

B. insecure attachments.

C. gut-level intuitions.

D. concrete operational thought.

C. gut-level intuitions.

The process of developing a sense of identity during adolescence was highlighted by

A. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

B. Piaget's cognitive development theory.

C. Kohlberg's moral development theory.

D. Harlow's attachment theory.

A. Erikson's psychosocial development theory.

A series of small strokes that progressively damage an older adult's brain is most likely to produce

A. menarche.

B. dementia.

C. crystallized intelligence.

D. Alzheimer's disease.

B. dementia.

According to Erikson, older adults can most effectively cope with the prospect of their own death if they have achieved a sense of

A. conventional morality.

B. object permanence.

C. conservation.

D. integrity.

D. integrity.

Mark thinks that language development over the life span requires a slow but steady shaping process. His belief is most directly relevant to the issue of

A. continuity or stages.

B. secure or insecure attachments.

C. fluid or crystallized intelligence.

D. cross-sectional or longitudinal studies.

A. continuity or stages.

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