Chemistry Exam 1

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chapters1 and 2 of chemistry- Hollandsworth

1 2

the subshell s has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

1,000

1 Food Calorie = ______cal

3

Chemists study matter from _ perspectives

3 6

the subshell p has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

4.184

1 cal = _____ J

5 10

the subshell d has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

7 14

the subshell f has _ orbital(s) with a maximum of _ electrons per sublevel

94

There are __ naturally occurring elements

118

How many elements are there total?

a negatively charged ion

what is an anion?

a positively charged ion

what is a cation?

ability to burn, undergo corrosion, rust, precipitate

give 4 examples of chemical properties

accuracy

______________ is how close to the actual value the measurement is

Analytical Chemistry

______________- Study of how to determine the exact composition of mixtures and compounds. What is present and what is the exact percent composition.

Aufbau

The ___________ principle says that elctrons "build up"by filling the lowest energy level orbitals first

average atomic mass

the atomic mass on the periodic table is really the__________ __________ __________

Bio Chemistry

______________- Study of the molecules and processes that take place in living organisms

Calorie

A ______________ is the heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water to 1degree C

Chemical

if something is edible then it is a ______________ property

Chemical properties

______________- Properties of matter that are observed when atoms are rearranged removed replaced or added to compounds resulting in new compounds with differing physical and chemical properties

chemical, nuclear stability

Isotopes of an element have the same __________ properties but different __________

Chemistry

________ is the study of matter and changes that occur in matter

color, size, phase, mass

what are 4 examples of physical properties

Dalton

Who was the scientist that came up with law of multiple proportions?

Dalton's

______________ atomic theory is microscopic model to explain macroscopic observations

down across right left

The atomic radius trend says that atoms tend to get larger and have increased radius when you go ___________ the periodic chart as you go ___________ a period, ___________to ___________

Elements and compounds

Pure substances can be divided into what two categories

Ernest Rutherford

Who was credited with the gold foil experiment?

experimental

chemistry is an ______________ science

Extensive

these are properties that are dependent on how much matter is present

g med / kg body weight

Dosage = ________ / ___________

Homogenous and heterogeneous

mixtures can be divided into what two type of categories

Hund's Rule

___________- electrons fill degenerate orbitals one at a time (with the same spin), before pairing up electrons in the degenerate orbitals

Inorganic Chemistry

______________- Study of the compounds of all other elements besides carbon

intensive

these are properties that are independent of how much matter is present

ionic and covalent bonds

compounds can be broken into what two type of bonds?

ionization energy

___________- energy needed to remove an electron from the outer shell of an atom in the gaseous state

Isotopes

__________ - atoms of the same element that differ in mass due to a different number of neutrons

JJ Thompson

who was credited with the cathode ray tube experiment

Lavoisier

Who was the scientist that defined the law of conservation of mass>

macroscopic

The first atomic model was based on 3 major ______________ observations

Macroscopic, microscopic, symbolic

The 3 perspectives that chemist study matter from are?

metal

___________ is an element that typically has less than 4 electrons in its outer shell

metalloids

___________- elements that exhibit characteristics of both metals and non-metals

negative

an electron has what charge?

neutral

a neutron has what charge?

Neutrons

Isotopes differ in the number of __________

Niels Bohr

Who explained the bright line of hydrogen using a planetary model?

nonmetal

___________- an element that typically has 4 or more electrons in its outer shell

Octet Rule

atoms are most stable when they have 8 electrons

Organic Chemistry

_________________- Study of compounds that have the element carbon as the basic structure

Pauli Exclusion Principle

______________________- electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spin

Physical Chemistry

______________- Attempts to develop the theory for why matter behaves the way it does. The application of these theories can be applied to all areas of chemistry

Physical Properties

______________- A property that can be observed without changing the molecular composition of matter

Positive

a proton has what charge?

Precision

______________ is how consistent a measurement is

Protons

A particular element is determined by the number of __________ in the nucleus

protons electrons neutral

in an atom, the number of __________ equals the number of __________ so that the atom is electrically __________ overall

protons neutrons

mass number is the number of _________ +__________

Proust

Who was the scientist that came up with law of definite proportions by mass

Pure substances and mixtures

Matter can be divided up into what two categories?

Qualitative observations

______________ - a simple description of some property of the substance

Quantitative observations

______________- always involves a measurement of the property in questoin

Random Error

Data from multiple measurements is scattered in a more or less uniform way around some average value. Thus equaling out. this is called ______________

Robert Milton

Who was credited with the oil drop experiment?

Systematic Error

______________ causes data to be either smaller or larger than the actual value

Thermal energy

______________- the total kinetic energy of all particles in a material

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