1. Where was Knossos located, and why was it important?
Knossos was the largest city in Crete, which is a small island south of Greece (still a part of Greece) important because even though Knossos was not the capital other city-states looked to Knossos for leadership.
2. What is a Thalassocracy?
A Thalassocracy is a sea empire.
3. Know the definitions of acropolis and agora. -Acropolis
a high city. Each city-state had an acropolis. The palace was built on the acropolis. No temples were built on the acropolis Agora- is a market place
4. Describe the relationship between Bull Leaping and the myth of the Minotaur.
As part of the Crete's religion they felt the need to make sacrifices to the gods. On an island was a minotaur and some of the best bull leapers and slaves would go and try and defeat the minotaur (even though they knew they wouldn't) bull leaping was big and many people competed to be the best, and when the kings son decided to go himself as a tribute the gods favored him because he sacrificed himself. Good karma.
5. What does it mean for a civilization to be in a "Dark Age?"
It means that there is not a lot of written record about that time period so we don't know a lot about that time period.
6. Who wrote, The Iliad and The Odyssey?
7. Who was Heinrich Schliemann, and what were his obsessions?
He was a historian/banker/father of archeology who was obsessed with proving that the events depicted bu Homer actually happened. He began by going and excavating the city of troy, and finds a foundation that he insists is the city of troy that homer explains in his writing. (in modern day turkey). He then goes to ancient Mycenae in Greece and finds what he clams to be the golden death mask of Agamemnon and other artifacts that he concludes are from Homers accounts.
8. In what modern day country is the ancient city of Troy located?
9. What is the biggest problem facing the Greek City states before the Persian invasions?
10. What are the definitions of ethne and polis?
Ethne- large territorial units (singular ethnos)-Polis- innovative form of political organization (citadel or city-state) several villages would cluster around the polis for protection and for religious reasons, often times became the center for specific deities
11. What are a phalanx and a hoplite?
Phalanxes were Well-disciplined ranks of infantrymen the soldiers in the phalanx's were called hoplites. They were provided lance shields and bronze armor by the wealthy landowners most fought in the nude
12. Describe the ancient Olympic games and its importance to Greek society.
Began in 776 BCE where a Pan-Hellenic athletic contest held every 4 years to honor Zeus, important for that reason. Some of the contests lasted until one opponent died. Only Greeks could attend games and only men could compete, conducted in the nude, city-states would compete against one anther for victory. The winners were seen as national hero's and got statue erected in their honor and their names on the pedestal, the games lasted until AD 393 and weren't brought back again for a while. (When the whole world competed.) They competed for the Gods. Held every four years.
13. What was the 2 primary things Corinth was known for during the Classic age of Greece?
Pottery - Prostitution (a saying "not every man has the luck to sail to Corinth")
14. Who were Cypselus and Periander?
Cypselus- a tyrant who lead a revolt against the ruling of the Bacchiads (tyrant- an absolute ruler who governs without restrictions- Periander-the son of Cypselus he was the next tyrant of Corinth after Cypselus - Both tyrants were loved by the people - Periander started many construction projects that helped Corinth increase its wealth
15. What is the definition of an oligarchy?
A small group of people who rule (normally rich people, like wealthy land owners)
16. Who were the homoioi?
Spartan society was organized into a 2 tier system the top tear being the homoioi, the bottom being the serfs or Helots (slaves)
17. Describe how Sparta dealt with its overpopulation and how its actions changed Spartan society.
By land expansion- they invade Messenia, enslave the helots, it changes it because people are afraid of a slave revolt.
18. What is eunomia?
Elevated duty and patriotism above individual (Greek version of communism)
19. Who was Lycurgus?
The lawgiver, he militarizes Sparta, develops a constitution, dual executive
20. What was the purpose of the Krypteia
A secret police who are to keep the helots in check
21. Who controlled the Peloponnesian League?
The Spartans. They had a defensive league, concerns for the isthmus
22. Who was Solon and how does he reorganize Athenian politics?
Solon the wise gives the Greeks the first idea of democracy (has 3 branches of government, ends debt slavery) true democracy
23. Who was Herodotus and why was he important?
Father of history, he was a historian he published his histories. Greek vs. Persia
24. Who was the Persian King during the 1st Persian War?
25. What started the 1st Persian War?
Athens is interfering in Persian Affairs, Darius, Persian King, wants to expand affairs
26. Describe what happened at the Battle of Marathon?
A Greek General chooses the spot because of a tactical advantage Darius attacks at marathon but is forced to return to his ships Now Darius plans to sail his army from Marathon to Athens, while the Greek army is in Marathon The Greek dispatch a runner to Athens to warn city Forced march of the Greek army will meet Darius in Athens, and defeat him with no help from Sparta
27. Who was the Persian king during the 2nd Persian War?
Xerxes's he was the sun of Darius
28. What was the Oracle of Delphi?
A priestess that Apollo spoke through and answer questions, she (always a girl) would sit on the ground and "speak" to Apollo. (She is the oracle)
29. Who was king Leonidas, and why is he remembered toady?
King Leonidas is the king of Sparta he is remembered today because he was one of the 300 who stayed to hold off the Persians. He risked his life for the people he ruled (he died).
30. What happens to Athens during the 2nd Persian War?
It gets burned
31. Who was Pericles and why is he important to the Athenians?
He was the person who rebuilt Greece after the downfall from the Persians. Although he never took a proper title of king he was a major influence on Athens by expanding democracy by eliminating land requirements, created restrictions of citizenship (those whose mothers and fathers were Athenians (true) were the only true Athenian citizen)
32. Who were the Sophists?
Wise people who began travelling throughout Greece offering to provide an advanced education for a fee (like Socrates however he did not make people pay) they trained their students in the art of rhetoric and logic and the power of human reasoning
33. Why was Socrates killed?
Because the wealthy people were in fear that he was corrupting their children to believe that power and wealth was not important so they created a law saying he was corrupting the youth so he was imprisoned and then he decided to drink the poison himself (willingly) so the officers wouldn't feel the guilt of killing a man)
34. What were the 3 styles of Greek Drama?
Tragedies Comedies Satyr (somewhere between comedies and tragedies and depicted a satyrs interacting with men and Gods
35. Why does the Peloponnesian War start?
Greek city dates are always fighting with each other, Athens is hit with the bubonic and pneumonic plague, which weakens Athens and Sparta wants to get back at Athens for defeating Persia by themselves the first time
36. What role does Persia play in the Peloponnesian War?
They send money ships and mercenaries
37. Who is Phillip of Macedonia?
Alexander the Greats father, king of Macedonia works on modernizing Macedonia by hiring Greeks to teach his people, Greek Businessmen, political thinkers
38. How does Alexander the Great become king of Macedonia?
His father decides to wed a second wife and during his wedding Celebration he is stabbed and Alexander the great takes over.
39. Where does Alexander the Great die?
40. What happens to Alexander's empire after his death?
Because he has no true heir it is split up amongst his generals in this time there will be a blending of eastern and western culture
41. Be ready to answer general questions about Oedipus.
Oedipus is the king of Thebes He ran away from his home town because there was a prophecies saying he was to kill his own father and sleep with his mother While running away he runs into people and kills them When he reaches Thebes there king has just died so he marries Jocasta the queen and becomes king of Thebes A while later Thebes is in terrible shape he sends someone to go and talk to the Gods and the guy (his brother in-law) comes back saying that the person who killed the original king is the one to blame for the bad luck Oedipus wants to find out who it is and kill him When a messenger from his old home comes and says the king (his father) has died he says that Oedipus wasn't really the son of Jocasta and the king Oedipus realizes the prophecies is true and he killed the king