antithesis, thesis,(tension) synthesis (compromise)
Why study history
learn about ourselves, learn about others and don't repeat
sense of context, know the facts, be able to communicate
1. When the new states wrote their own state constitutions, how did they apportion power between the executive branch and the legislative branch? Why?
The legislative branch gets more power because they were scared the executive branch was going to get too much power and be like a king.
2. Which state wrote a bill of rights into its constitution?
3.What rights were guaranteed?
Including rights to freedom of speech and religion, trial by jury and protection from cruel and unusual punishments.
4. Who were the principal authors of this state's constitution?
Thomas Jefferson, George Mason, James Madison, Edmund Randolph
5. When were the Articles of Confederation proposed by Congress?
1777, adopted in 1781
6. When were the Articles of Confederation approved by the states?
7. Why did it take so long for the Articles to win approval by the states?
They were worried about the land west of the Appalachian mountains
8. Who was the principal author of the Articles of Confederation?
9. Name three successes that the Articles of Confederation could claim.
Helped fund the army and wager war, negotiate Treaty of Paris, and settle Land Ordinance of 1785
10. Name two important weaknesses of the Articles and give examples of each
1. Couldn't collect taxes
2. Couldn't coin money, hard to run
3. We appeared weak to other countries, allowed British to use forts in the north and spain to not allow for transportation on the Mississippi river
11. What was Shays' Rebellion?
Daniel Shay, farmer in Massachucets, rose up against the government because government raised taxes on crops and they will lose their farms and not be able to sell goods. They band together and they steal guns and have an uprising, so people begin to think that the government isn't very affective because they could barely stop the uprising.
12. When did it occur?
13. What was its outcome and what important action did it precipitate?
Need stronger central government, lead to Constitutional convention.
14. What was the Land Ordinance of 1785?
Government divided land west of Appalachians into townships, 6 miles by 6 miles, beginning of public education
15. What was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787?
Land area north of Ohio, said once you had a population 60,000 white male landowners, you could petition government to become states. Ex: Indiana, Illinois
1. When did the delegates come to Philadelphia? What precipitated their concern about weakness in the Articles?
Came in 1787, came to make a stronger government, precipitated by Shays rebellion
2. Who was elected president of the convention?
3. Who was the principal author - sometimes called the "Father of the Constitution?
4. Who wrote the preamble to the Constitution?
5. In what major way did the Constitution differ from the Articles of Confederation and how is this difference reflected in the preamble?
The Articles talked about States, and the Constitution talked about the people coming together. The gave the power to the people. Created strong federal gov.
6. Who was the wise old man of the constitution?
7. What two important issues caused friction between the delegates?
1.President or King?
2. Power to tax and spend
8. What was the Virginia Plan and who proposed it
Each states number of representatatives were based on population, proposed by Edmund randolph
9. What was da New Jersey Plan and who proposed it?
Each states representation was 2 people, proposed by Patterson
10. What was the compromise reached between the Virginia and the New Jersey plans and who proposed it?
Roger Sherman says that Congress be bi-cameral legislature.
11. What did the South propose regarding counting of slaves as population?
Want to count slaves for population
12. What was the North's position on counting slaves as population?
Say slaves cant vote, and don't have rights so they shouldn't be counted as population
13. How was the dispute over counting slaves as population resolved?
3/5 compromise, each slaves be counted as 3/5 of a person for representation
14. What did the North propose regarding the slave trade?
You may bring slaves into the country for 20 more years and then no more bringing them in from outside the country
16. How was the dispute over the slave trade resolved?
For another 20 years slaves could be traded within the US but not to from outside the country, and after that slavery is illegal
1. What was the position of the Federalists?
They wanted to change and ratify the constitution, antifederalist did not want constitution, they wanted strong state government
2. What document(s) did the Federalists write and circulate to advance their cause
3. Who were the leaders of the federalist movement?
James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton
4. What was the position of the Anti-Federalists?
The Anti-Federalists strong state government and did not believe in the Constitution
5. What were three specific objections they sited?
Weakening the states, no bill of rights, and President or King?
Who were the leaders of the Anti-Federalists?
George Mason, Patrick Henry
How many states needed to approve
(ratify) the Constitution for it to take effect?
A super majority 9 out of 13, (simple is 2/3)
6. Which was the first state to approve the Constitution?
7. When (what year) was the Constitution ratified?
8. When was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
10. The first amendment deals with three specific freedoms. What are they?
Freedom of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition
1. Name two historic documents the founders borrowed from in order to draft the US Constitution
The magna carta which was signed in 1215, and the snglish bill of rights were signed in 1689
2. Name two important philosophers whose ideas were the foundation for the principles of the Constitution and list the major contribution (idea) that each made.
John Locke who believed in natural rights and social contract, and Baron de Montisque who invented checks and balances and believed in a well balanced government
3. How is the Constitution structured
The amendments, the articles, and the preamble
4. List and describe each of the Articles
1.Limits powers on congress 2. Limits powers on President 3. Deals with state relations 5. Provides process to amend the Constitution 6. Sates that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land 7. A procedure to ratify the Constitution
5. How many amendments are there
6. What are the first ten amendments called
Bill of Rights
7. List and describe three (any three) of the first ten amendments.
8. 1. The Freedom of Religion, Speech and Press, Assembly, and Petition: ability to practice any religion, say what you please, the gov. is safe from the press, you may have an assembly when needed or wanted, you can create a petition when needed or wanted.
9. 2. Bearing Arms: Everyone has the right to bear arms (to carry guns)
10. 3. Quartering of Troops: no soldier shall be out in a house against their will
11. List and describe three (any three) of the amendments that are not in the first ten.
12. 13. Slavery and Involuntary Servitude: You cannot have a slave except as a punishment for a crime
13. 19. Women's Sufferage: Women have the right to vote
14. 26. Right to Vote-Age: Ciitizens 18 and older may vote
15. List the seven important principles that are the basis for the Constitution and briefly explain what each means.
1. Popular Sovereignty: Asserts that the people are the primary source of the government authority
2. Limited Government: the government has only the powers the Constitution gives them
3. Separation of Powers: divides the government into three separate branches that each have their own duties
4. Checks and Balances: each branch of government has the power to check, or limit, the actions of the other two
5. Federalism: division of power between the federal government and the states
6. Republicanism: citizens elect representatives to carry out their will
7. Individual Rights: protects rights like the first amendment and the right to trial by jury
16. What "check" does the legislative branch have over the executive branch and what check does it have over the Judicial branch?
Congress (Legislative Branch over Executive Branch) can override a President's veto and ratify treaties or declare war. Congress (LB over JB) can impeach or amend judges and create lower or federal courts.
17. What "check" does the Executive branch have over the legislative branch and what check does it have over the Judicial branch?
(EB over LB, or Congress) They can propose laws or veto laws. (EB over JB) They can appoint federal judges and grant pardons
What "check" does the Judicial branch have over the executive branch and what check does it have over the legislative branch?
(JB over EB) They can declare Presidential actions unconstitutional (same over Congress) (or laws unconstitutional)
1. Describe the structure of the legislative branch of government.
Bi-cameral, which means split into two houses that have checks over each other and balance each other out
2. What compromise at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 resulted in the structure of the legislative branch?
The Great Compromise, conjoining the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan
3. What is the main job of the legislature?
To make laws
4. How many representatives are there in the US House of Representatives?.
5. How long is the term of a member of the House of Representatives?
6. How old must one be to serve in the House of Representatives?
25 years old
7. How many representatives does Georgia have in the House of Representatives
8. Who is the representative in your district?
9. How many Senators are there in the US Senate?.
10. How long is the term of a Senator?
11. How old must one be to be a Senator?
30 years old
12. How many Senators does Georgia have in the House of Representatives?
13. Who are our US Senators?
Johnny Isaakson, and Saxby Chambliss
14. What is the main job of the Executive Branch of government?
15. Who are The President and Vice President of the US?
Barack Obama and Joe Biden
16. What is the term of the President and how old must he be to serve in this position?
Term: 4 years Age: 35 years old
17. What is the Electoral College? How many electoral votes does each state have?
A group of electors chosen by the State, equal to the tota of representatives and senators that the given state has in the Congress
18. Who are the current Secretaries of Treasury, State and Defense?
Geithner: Treasury, H.Clinton: State, and Panetta: Defense
19. Who were the Secretaries of Treasury, State and Defense in Washington's cabinet?
Treasury: Hamilton, State: Jefferson, Defense: Hamilton
20. What is the main job of the Judicial Branch of Government?
Interpret the law
23. How are Supreme Court Justices Appointed? What is their term?
They are appointed by the President but checked first by the other branches, and their term is life unless impeached
24. How many justices are there on the Supreme Court? Who is the Chief Justice?
There are 9 justices and the Chief Justice is John G. Roberts Jr.
25. What is the principal of Judicial Review and what Supreme Court case established this principal?
Madison vs. Marbury
1. Can the Constitution be changed? Why?
Yes, because principle 5 provides process to amend the Constitution
2. What are amendments and how many are there?
Amendments are little laws and changes, and there 27 of them
3. What are the first ten amendments called and when were they added to the Constitution?
The Bill of Rights, added in 1791
4. What amendment ended slavery in the US?
The 13th amendment
5. What amendment ended the sale of alcohol in the US and what amendment restored it?
6. What amendment gave women the right to vote and in what year?
19th , 1920
7. What is a supermajority?
8. What supermajority is necessary to propose an amendment (to take it to a vote)?
9. What supermajority is necessary to ratify an amendment?
10. When was the most recent amendment added to the Constitution?
11. What three freedoms are guaranteed by the first amendment?
Religion, Speech and Press, Assembly and Petition
2. Why is the FBI called in on kidnapping cases?
When someone takes another across state lines without their permission it is breaking federal law
3. Name two federal agencies
FBI and IRS
4. Name two state agencies
GBI and GDOT
There are three ways to become a US citizen. What are they?
Naturalized, born in USA, minor and parent is naturalized