speech sound, target sound, utterance: smallest unit of speech in a language
study of the sound system of language
word formation in a language including inflection, derivation, and compounding
The pattern or structure of word order in sentences, clauses and phrases.
the appropriate use of language in different contexts
ability recognize spoken language and how it can be pull apart, blended, and manipulated - non print
ability recognize spoken language and how it can be pull apart, blended, and manipulated - print and sound
relationship of printed letters to spoken words
high frequency irregular words
was, a, are, the have you, says, too, this, said, of, oh, away, what, does, do.
knowledge about our own thinking processes, of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes
think and talk about thinking
What activity would best promote students' understanding of relationship b/w written and spoken words?
The teacher displays a big book and points to each word as she reads the book aloud
What oral language activity would be most effective in promoting students' multicultural awareness and appreciation?
Teacher guides students to discuss some features that folk tales of various countries have in common as well as some of the unique features of each culture's folk tales.
a mathematical statement derived from axioms, definitions, and previously proven statements
American Revolution most influenced political developments in Mexico and Latin America by:
demonstrating that it was possible to overthrow European colonial rule
Civil rights movement in 1960's sought to address issues from:
Reconstruction era following the civil war
The concept of region helps examine geography by providing:
a convenient and manageable unit for studying Earth's human and natural envir.
Eli Whitney developed interchangable parts, allowing for division of labor, resulting in:
reduced price of goods produced
Opportunity costs lead to consumers:
establishing purchasing priorities
The main effect of formal changes to the constitution has been to:
make the constitution more democratic than the original document
How does the federal executive branch check the power of the federal judicial branch?
the president appoints the supreme court justices
sharing cultural ideas or materials b/w populations(close or far)
the exchange or adoption of cultural features when two cultures combine or come in direct contact
When are thunderstorms most likely to form?
fast-moving cold front enters an area in which there is a warm, humid air mass
What best supports the big bang theory?
microwave background radiation is fairly evenly distributed across space
Two major characteristics of the 1st American literature?
Maudlin and self-pitying egocentricism. (ex: John Smith, William Bradford, and Michael Wigglesworth)
Long poem, usually of book length, reflecting values in society. Include: invocation to a Muse for inspiration, purpose for writing, general setting, protaganist/antagonist with supernatural strength, and intervention of a God or gods.
Illiad, Odyssey, Aeneid, Paradise Lost, the Fairie Queene, Aurora Leigh, The Rape of the Lock
A letter that is not always originally intended for public distribution, but b/c of the fame of sender/recipient becomes public domain. (EX: Paul in the Bible)
terse tale offering up a moral or exemplum (EX: "The Nun's Priest's Tale" about animals that speak and act like humans, illustrating human foibles)
a story told or sung, usually in verse and accompanied by music. Earliest forms were anonymous folk ballads.
found in ballads, also called the repeated section
found in ballads, also called incremental repetition, used for effect
traditional narrative or collection of related narratives, that started as facts, but have fiction added
stories that are universally shared within a culture to explain its history and traditions (also, usually to explain a natural phenomenon)
longest form of fictional prose
the only requirement is rhythm.
Fixed Literature (poetry)
sonnet, elegy, ode, pastoral, and villanelle
Petrarchan or Italian Sonnet
divided into an octave rhyming abbaabba and a sestet normally rhyming cdecde
It has three four-line units, or quatrains, followed by a con¬ cluding two-line unit, or couplet.
Unfixed Literature (poetry)
blank verse and dramatic monologue
Octava Rima Poetry
Oct- eight-line stanza whose rhyme scheme is ababacc
sad and melancholic poem, usually about the death (lamenation) of an individual. Funeral poems or elegy is one of the most popular formats used in funeral and memorial services today. Way to remember: eulogy
Spenserian Stanza (Poetry)
fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem The Faerie Queene. Each stanza contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single 'Alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme of these lines is "ababbcbcc."
typically a terse narrative, with less developmental background about characters. Poe emphasized that successful short story should create one focused impact. (EX: Hemmingway, Faulkner, Twain, Poe, and Pushkin)
interpretation of dialogue must be connected to motivation and detail. Director seeks a variation of tempo to keep audiences attention
similar to the plot diagram
contains at least one subject and one verb
can stand alone or be joined with another clause
2 types of dependent clauses
1) with subordinating conjunction
2) with a relative pronoun
Examples of coordinating conjunctions:
Examples of relative pronouns:
phrases not placed near the word they modify. (EX: "One damaged house stood only to remind townspeople of the hurricane." - suggests that the sole reason the house remained was to serve as a reminder. Correction: "Only one damaged house stood, reminding townspeople of the hurricane."
phrases that do not relate to the subject being modified. (EX: "Weighing the options carefully, a decision was made about convicting the criminal." - who is weighing the options? Correction: "Weighing the options carefully, the judge made a decision...")
realization that there is a relationship b/c letters and sounds. Students tend to spell by sound. Teacher should emphasize phonetics (sounding word out).
Students write one letter, or a cluster of letters, for every sound in the word. Teachers should emphasize visual strategies (looking for predictable letter sequence and patterns)
beginning phase of using visual memory. Students have learned about letter patterns, but often use them incorrectly. Teachers should implement visual and morphemic strategies (pre-fix, suffix, roots)
figure of speech where someone absent or something inhuman is addressed as though present and able to respond. (difference b/w that and personification: absence of item/person, and only a reference to)
quality in a work of literature that evokes feelings of pity or compassion. (Ex: Desdemona's death in Othello)
a conversation or conference, usually formal
a statement that at first seems to be absurd or self-contradictory but which may in fact turn out to be true
an unusually far-fetched [extended] metaphor comparing two very dissimilar things cleverly
a brief, often witty saying, usually an observation about life; (ex: a proverb, Jerry Seinfield)
a punctuation mark indicating omission, interrupted though, or an incomplete statement. In an ellipsis, word/words that would clarify the sentence's message are missing, yet it is still possible to understand from context
an error involving time in a story; something or someone misplaced in time
x values are not repeated
A quadratic function has imaginary roots. What is always true of the graph of the function in the xy-coordinate plane?
It never intersects the x-axis
2 things vary directly: as one gets larger, the other does too; if one gets smaller, so does the other one.
If x and y vary directly, there should be a constant
Ex: pay per hour at the same rate: increase hours=increase pay
as one gets larger, the other gets smaller
If x and y vary inversely, there should still be a constant.
Ex: driving time: increase speed=decrease time
f(x)=ax + b
Slope intercept form
y=mx + b (m is the lines slope, b is the y intercept)
Finding slope when graph or coordinates are given
slope = (y2-y1)/(x2-x1)
Finding Standard Form of graph when coordinates are given
1) Find slope first: (y2-y1)/(x2-x1)
2) Fill in slope and coordinates for Ya and Xa: Y-Ya = m(X-Xa)
3) Clean up (if answers have fractions w/ same denominator, multiply both sides by that whole number)
ex: (5, 6) and (-1, -2)
1) (6 + 2)/(5+1) = 4/3
2) Y+2 = 4/3(X +1)
y + 2 = 4/3x + 4/3
y = 4/3x -2/3
3) (3)y = 3(4/3x -2/3)
3y = 4x - 2
To find y intercept
substitute 0 for x and solve. To find x intercept, substitute 0 for y and solve.
ax + by = c
Graph w/ Vertical Line
x= any number, meaning it only has an x intercept. Slope is undefined
Graph w/ Horizontal Line
y= any number, meaning it only has a y intercept. Slope is 0.
x = -b ± √(b² - 4ac)/2a
an equation of the form ax² + bx + c = 0, where a ≠ 0
Solving quadratic equations
1) factor 2) set each factor = 0 3) solve
x² + 10x - 24 = 0
1) (x + 12) (x-2)
2) x + 12 = 0 x - 2 = 0
3) x = -12 x = 2
f(x)=x² : normal graph, vertex at origin
f(x)= (x± c)² : opposite of what you would think- negative goes right, + goes left
f(x)=x² ± c: positive goes up, negative goes down
f(x)=cx² : again, opposite of what you would think-the larger the number the skinnier the graph; the smaller the number the wider the graph. If c is negative the parabola points down
Absolute Value Graph
linear equation y = x, graph is a line going through origin and 1st and 3rd quadrants at 45 degree angles
Greatest Integer / Step Function
equation uses [ ], graph looks like steps
has 2 graphs (parabolas) and asymptotes (a line that a graph approaches, but does not intersect)
Piecing multiple graphs together (may or may not intersect)
series of numbers that follow a specific pattern.
is a sum of numbers represented by sigma (looks like a large greek E)
is the slope of a tangent line to a graph f(x) and is usually denoted f'(x).
Also referred to as the instantaneous rate of change.
reveals whether a curve is rising or falling from left to right
relates whether the curve is concave up or concave down
where y is the largest of all y values
where y is the smallest of all y values
measures more than 180 and less than 360 (has a circle around the back of the angle to show it goes all the way around and is greater than obtuse)
do not intersect and do not lie on the same plane
have same slope
slopes are negative reciprocals (ex: 3 and -1/3)
If slopes aren't same or negative reciprocal the answer is neither
drawing made using only a compass and straightedge, and consists of only segments, arcs, and points
Euclid wrote a set of 13 books in 330 BC called Elements, where he outlined 10 axioms and then deduced 465 theorems. Is based on the undefined concept of the point, line, and plane.
His 5th axiom (parallel postulate) has not been as readily accepted b/c it could be proved by the other 9 he created.
4-sided space triangle (basically a triangular pyramid)
Cartesian or Rectangular Coordinate System
if we know the dimensions of a 2-D shape, we could use coordinates to visualize that shape
combination of reflection and translation
Stem and Leaf Plots
best suited for small sets of data and are especially useful for comparing 2 sets of data
the opposite of a symmetrical distribution. (in symmetrical mean=mode=median)
Box and Whisker Plot
a diagram that summarizes data using the median, the upper and lower quartiles, and the extreme values (outliers).
shows how spread out a set of numbers are. The larger the variance, the larger the spread.
To find: 1) add all numbers together
2) square that answer
3) divide by number of items
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (looks like a lower case cursive o on the calculator)
is found by taking the square root of variance
dividing the bell curve into 9 sections (5th section is the mean)
1st Quartile: median of the lower half of the data set
2nd Quartile: median of the entire data set
3rd Quartile: median of th upper half of the data set
Sample space in probability
list of all possible outcomes
Counting Principle in probability
2 distinct, independent events: n x m
Ex: 3 options for meal x 2 options for dessert
Addition Principle of Counting
n(AorB) = n(A) + n(B) - n (A n B)
The probability of event A or event B happening, if dependent on each other
ex: drawing a Jack or black card: 4 + 26 - (26-4) = 28
Probability of A + Probability of B - Difference of both probabilities
Addition Principle for Mutually Exclusive Events
n(AorB) = n(A) + n(B)
If events are mutually exclusive of each other
ex: travel agency offers 16 trips to Asia, 14 to Europe, in how many ways can you select a trip to Asia or Europe?
14 + 16 = 30
To find: add events together
Multiplication Principle of Counting for Dependent Events
n(AandB) = n(A)n(B|A)
When the first event effects the outcome of the second event
ex: How many ways can a Jack be drawn twice without replacing? 4 x 3 = 12
To find: multiply the outcomes of event A x outcomes for event B (should usually be 1 less than event A)
Multiplication Principle of Counting Independent Events
n(AandB) = n(A)n(B)
ex: how many 6 letter combinations can be created if none can repeat? 26 x 25 x 24 x 23 x 22 x 21
used in permutations
ex: 5! = 5x4x3x2x1 = 120tg
probability of an experiment where replacements are not allowed. (easier to use the counting principle) Order is important!
r-number of items to be selected
n- number of draws
ex: How many ways can 7 students choose a president and vice president?
=7 x 6 x 5!/5! the 5!'s can cancel out
=7 x 6
measures the distance in standard deviations from the mean
z-score = (outcome-mean)/standard deviation
ex: mean = 50, standard deviation=10, probability of less than 42
4 types of measurement scales used in statistic
nominal measurement scale
most basic: classify responses into categories
ex: gender, race, religion, marital status
ordinal measurement scale
ex: movie ratings, surveys (question with scales like "highly satisfied" or "1-good, 2-fair...")
interval measurement scale
numeric scales, where intervals are fixed, uniform values throughout (limitation: no fixed 0 point)
ratio measurement scale
most informative scale, b/c it allows for proportional comparison (twice as much $, or half the length)
basically an interval scale with a true 0 point
ex: length measurement, $ systems, degrees Kelvin (b/c 0 value represents the absence of length, $, or temp.)
read: if p then q
Expresses a theorem and its converse are true?
A if and only if B
Negation of a Statement
If a statement is true, then its negation must be false and vice versa
EX: "if p, then q" is "p and not q"
"not q" is "q"
"r and s" is "not r" OR "not s" (if you negate both, than still true)
"r or s" is "not r" AND "not s"
negation of: "some winter nights are not cold" : "none of the winter nights are cold"
"if it rains, then the beach party will be held" : "it rains and the beach party will not be held"
Venn Diagram in Math
if circles are inside each other: the inner circle must also meet the rules of the outer circle
4 standard forms of valid arguments
Law of Detachment
Law of Contraposition
Law of Syllogism
Law of Detachment
Premise 1: If p, then q
Premise 2: p, therefore q
Law of Contraposition
Not q, therefore not p
If John drives the big truck, then the shipment will be delivered
The shipment is not delivered
b/c ~q = ~p
Answer: John does not drive the big truck
Law of Syllogism
If q, then r
Therefore if p,then r
p or q
not p, therefore q
Ex: Peter is a Jet Pilot or a Navigator
Peter is not a Jet Pilot
p v (or) q
~p, so has to be q
Answer: Peter is a Navigator.
study of limit, rate of change, area under a curve, and slope of a tangent line.
Junior high prepares for this by learning:
change over time
deals with angles, triangles, functions of sine, cosine, and tangent
Development in jr high:
Careers using Trig:
English colonists in America won freedom from Great Britain
Results: representative govt.
revolt of middle/lower class against rulers b/c of extreme taxation, inflation, lack of food, and disregard for their living conditions
Results: consulship, a generalship, and then an emperor
b/c of religious, political, and econ. reasons.
Religious: abuses in the Catholic church- fraudulent clergy w/ immoral lifestyles, sale of religious offices, different theologies, frauds w/ sacred relics
World War I
Serbian assassinated Archduke of Austria. Austria demanded a full investigation, Serbia refused. Austria (w/ ally Germany) declared war on Serbia (w/ ally Russia).
Germany then declared war on Russia, followed by France (b/c of France's alliance with Russia).
Germany invaded Belgium (neutral) to be closer to Paris.
Britain (ally to France and Belgium) declared war on Germany.
US (under President Woodrow Wilson) declared neutrality. But, Germany threatened commercial shipping w/ submarine warfare, and US joined in 1917.
Treaty of Versailles finally signed & League of Nations was created, agreeing to avoid armed conflict through disarment and diplomacy.
Germany, Italy, and Japan initiated a policy of aggressive territorial expansion. Japan attacked China, Italy invaded Ethiopia, Germany (under Hitler) immediately began to build up armed forces (a direct violation of peace treaty)
Germany then invaded many countries, including Austria, Czech, Polland, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, and France.
US (under Franklin Roosevelt) announced neutrality. Roosevelt's plan was to defeat the Axis nations by sending the Allied nations war supplies. Roosevelt stopped all exports to Japan and refused to let them withdraw money from American banks. Japan bombed US at Pearl Harbor, causing US to join in war.
After victory was atttained in Europe, focus went to Japan. 2 atomic bomb were dropped and the Pacific war ended.
Allies agreed that Germany's armed forces be abolished and Nazi Party outlawed.
Outcome: United Nations named for promoting world peace.
Consequences: death, destruction, displaced people, strength/spreading of Communism/Cold War tension (ended more lives and caused more devastation than any other war)
After WWII ended, Japan stopped controlling Korea. The Soviet Union occupied the North, US controlled the South, through trusteeship.
United Nations ordered elections to create a unified govt. but both countries backed different candidates, creating a division of 2 separate states.
North Korea (backed by Soviets) declared war on South Korea (US, British, Australia, UN forces). China also got involved when forces entered N. Korea.
1953: Peace negotations resulted in cease-fire. Since then, N. Korea has an isolated, communist dictatorship, S. Korea has grown into a major world economy.
Like Korea, Vietnam became divided after WWII (communist North, western-govt South). North began to drive out South.
US became more involved when N. Vietnam attacked US ships. As controversy over the war began to grow in US, Nixon began to reduce troops, while assisting the S. Vietnam army in building strength. US withdrew troops, with a promise from Nixon to send defense assistance. But, after Watergate, Congress cut off all funding.
US withdrawal left S. Vietnam w/o economic or military support, and N. Vietnam was able to take control of the entire country.
at least 2,000 ft above sea level
areas of lowlands formed by soil and sediment deposited at the mouths of rivers
flat top hills or mountains, usually with steep sides. (similar to plateaus, but smaller)
low areas drained by rivers or low spots in mountains
6 themes of geography
2) Spatial Organization- describes how things are grouped in a given space (ex: where people live in relations to others)
3) Place- has both physical (rivers, mountains) and human characteristics (roads, canals)
4)Human-Environmental Interaction- humans adapt to envirn., humans modify envirn., humans depend on envirn.
6) Regions- a) Formal regions- political boundaries (state, country)
b) Functional regions- defined by a common function (ex: area covered by telephone service)
c) Vernacular regions- formed by perceptions (ex. "the middle east" or "the south"
centrally planned economy
used to be called Communism and is the opposite of a market economy
in between planned and market community
Gross Domestic Product - a monetary measure of the economy's output during a specific time period
Measured by expenditure approach and incomes approach
GDP = Consumption $ + Investment $ + Govt. $ + Net Export $ (includes only final goods and services)
Industrial Revolution Results
-increase world trade
-specialized division of labor
-growth of giant businesses and monopolies
-revolution in agriculture b/c of: steamship, fertilizer, canning, refrigeration
-increase population, esp. in industrial areas
-advances in science (agriculture, sanitation, medicine)
-growth of cities
-disappearance of diff. b/w city dweller and farmer
-faster life tempo, increase stress
-increased mobility produced rapid sharing of knowledge and ideas
-conflict over slavery
grants citizens the ability to participate in govt. by voting and running for public office.
-the ideal behind Declaration of Independence
-embodied in the Constitution
Powers of Federal Govt.
-borrow and coin $
-est. postal service
-regulate interstate/foreign commerce
-raise and support armed forces
-define and punish felonies and piracy
-fix standards of weights/measures
-conduct foreign affairs
Powers of States
-regulate intrastate trade
-protect general welfare
-protect life and property
-make state and local laws
Concurrent powers of Federal and States
- both may tax
-both may borrow $
-both may charter banks and corp.
-both may est. courts
-both may make and enforce law
-both may take property for public purposes
-both may spend $ to provide public welfare
Congress: House of Representatives and Senate
-make, repeal, and amend all federal laws
-levying federal taxes and distributing funds
100 member, 2 from each state, who serve 6-yr terms
-approval of presidential nominations
-approval of treaties
-conducting impeachment cases of federal officials
House of Representatives
435 members, who serve 2-yr terms
-initiating financial bills
-bringing impeachment charges against high federal officials
President, various executive dept, and independent agencies
-enforcing federal laws
-appointing/removing any high federal officials
-commanding armed forces
-conducting foreign affairs
-recommending laws to congress
-can veto bills that congress pass
Supreme Court and other lower federal courts
type of modern govt. where a small group of people control the govt.
EX: a republic, an aristocracy, and some dictatorships (esp. those based on wealth or military authority)
Despotism and Dictatorship
govt. where there is unlimited power over the people and no legislative body to limit rulers.
Syn: tyranny, autocracy, totalitarianism
govt. made up of a legislative body, called a parliament, and a cabinet with a prime minister. Cabinet stays in power for as long as it has support.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
informal rules of ettiquette and behaviors a society follows
ex: forming a line, holding doors
stronger than folkways in the consequences for not following (person considered immoral)
ex: cheating, lying
same as # of protons or electrons (APE: A=P=E))
protons + neutrons (MAN: mass=atomic # + neutrons)
the decimal below the symbol on the periodic table
with the exception of Hydrogen, all elements in group 1 are alkali metals
-softer, less dense
-most chemically reactive
-higher melting point
found in periods (rows) 4-7 under groups (columns) 3-12
-metals that do not show a range of properties
-high melting point
-compounds are: colorful, such as silver, gold, and mercury
mixture of 2+ elements having properties of metal, but do not have to be all metal
Include: solids, gases, and one liquid (bromine)
-usually dull, brittle
-not good conductors of heat or electricity
-have 4 to 8 electrons in their outermost energy level
-tend to attract other electrons
-react with metals
found in group 17
-combine readily with metals to form salts
ex: salt, fluoride toothpaste, and bleach
found in group 18
-do not react chemically with other elements
when atoms bond chemically, they stop having their own individual property
formed when 2 atoms share electrons
-happen among non-metals
-always polar b/w 2 non-identical atoms
formed by the transfer of electrons, when metals and non-metals bond
-when electrons are shared, it throws off their neutrality creating ions
2+ substances combine to form a compound
A + B → AB
ex: silver and sulfur yield silver dioxide
compound breaks down into 2+ simpler substances
AB → A + B
ex: water breaks down into hydrogen and oxygen
Single replacement reaction
a free element replaces an element that is part of a compound
A + BX → AX + B
ex: iron + copper sulfate yields iron sulfate + copper
Double replacement reaction
parts of 2 compounds replace each other (compounds switch partners)
AX + BY → AY + BX
ex: sodium chloride + mercury nitrate → sodium nitrate + mercury chloride
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Formula for photosynthesis
CO₂ + H₂O + energy (sunlight) → C₆H₁₂O₆ + 6 O₂
(Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen)
Process by which a photosynthetic organism uses energy to synthesize simple sugars from CO2.
is done on an object when applied force moves through a distance
the ability to do work or supply heat
defined by the ability to reproduce with members of their own kind
- division of somatic cell
-2 cells result from each division
-chromosone number is identical to parent cells (diploid)
-for cell growth and repair
-division of sex cells (sperm and egg)
-4 cells or polar bodies result from each division
-chromosone number is half the # of parent cells (haploid)
-recombinations provide genetic diversity
shows the possible ways that genes combine and indicate probability of gene type (one parent along top, other parent along side)
each step in a food chain or food web
producers → Primary consumers→secondary consumers→tertiary consumers
Layers of the atmosphere
-troposphere: closest to earth's surface, where weather occurs, has most water and dust (7 miles)
-stratosphere: contains very little water, ozone layer located in upper portion
-mesosphere: air temp decreases more about -100 C
-thermosphere:getting closer to the sun, so temp increases, gases are excited by the radiation causing Aurora Borealis
measures wind speed
closest to the sun
-New moon: moon is invisible or 1st sight of crescent
-Waxing crescent: right crescent visible
-1st Quarter: right quarter visible
-Waxing Gibbous: only left crescent is not illuminated
-Full moon: the entire illuminated half of the moon is visible
-Waning Gibbous: only right crescent of the moon is not visibile
-Last Quarter: the left quarter is visible
-Waning Crescent: only the left crescent is illuminated