1MP History Interim Test Vocab

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World History Unit 4 Interim Review Key Terms SA-SC.

Artifacts

Objects including tools, clothing, works of art, weapons, and toys.

Culture

Set of beliefs, knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of people develops.

Nomads

Earlier people that wandered from place to place in search of food.

Agriculture

The raising of crops for food.

Domestication

The taming of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs.

Hunter-gatherers

Early people who lived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food.

Artisans

A class of skilled workers

Neolithic Agricultural revolution

Shift in human history from food gathering to food producing.

Irrigation

Dugged ditches and canals to move water from the river to their fields

Division of labor

As methods of farming improved, fewer people had to work the fields. some people could specialize in other kinds of work.

Cultural diffusion

The spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area.

Geography

A science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface.

The Nile River

Longest river in the world. Flows from north to south, and provides a natural route for transportation.

Hieroglyphics

Form of ancient writing developed by Nile River valley people.

The Yellow River

Region in eastern asia.

Analects

Confucius' ideas and teachings in one work.

City-state

A form of community developed by the Sumerians

Monotheism

Believing in only one god

Mummification

When the body is presented to make life after death possible. organs were removed from the body, which was then treated with chemicals.

Reincarnation

The belief in the rebirth of souls.

Polytheism

Believing that many gods existed

Rosetta Stone

An unusual stone, found in the village of Rosetta. carved in this stone were passages written in Greek, Hieroglyphics, and Egyptian writing style called demote.

Ziggurat

Most striking Sumerian buildings that were temples. made of baked brick placed in layers.

The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Fertile crescent

The Indus River

River that flows to the southwest

Bhagavad Gita

The Mahabharata tells the story of a great battle in a kingdom in what is now northern India. Part of this empire is known as the Bhagavad Gita.

Monsoon

Are winds that mark the seasons in India.

Caste-system

A complex form of social organization that began to take shape after the Indo-Aryan migration.

Scribe

Elite group of people that learned to read and write so that they could work for the government

Nirvana

A perfect peace.

Cuneiform

Sumerian writing from the Latin word for wedge, cuneus. Developed from pictographic writing

Empire

A form of government in which an individual or a single people rules over many other peoples and territories

Agora

Marketplace

Aristocracy

A government ruled by an upper class,

Delian League

An alliance of city-states with Athens as leader. Athens used diplomacy to form this.

Democracy

Government in which citizens take part.

Dramas

Plays containing action or dialogue and involving conflict and emotion.

Frescoes

Colorful paintings made on wet plaster walls.

Hellenistic

No longer purely Hellenistic, or Greek, this was a new "Greek-like" way of life.

Iliad

Homer's great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War.

Persian Wars

Conflicts between Greece and Persia.

Peloponnesian Wars

Quarrels over trade divided Athens and Corinth. Tensions grew between Athens and Sparta until war broke out in 431 B.C

Odyssey

Homer's epic that tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus on his way home from the Trojan War.

Parthenon

White marble temple built in ancient Athens in honor of Athena.

Philosophy

The study of basic questions of reality and human existance.

Tyrants

Illegally took power 650-500B.C. but had the support of the people

Republic

Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state.

Dictator

Absolute ruler.

Consuls

Chief officials. Led the army and were judges. Could appoint a dictator to lead for 6 months.

Veto

Refuse to approve, as in a bill or law.

Patricians

A small number of wealthy Roman families that held all governmental power.

Plebeians

Most of the population- artisans, shopkeepers, peasants, etc. A few were wealthy but most were poor

Punic Wars

Three costly conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over control of the Mediterranean and overseas expansion

Aqueducts

Bridge-like structures that carried water from the mountains.

Hippocrates

Lived between about 460B.C. and about 377B.C., is considered to be the founder of medical science.

Pythagoras

Was a philosopher who believed that everything could be explained in terms of mathematics.

Socrates

one of the most important thinkers of the new era that was an Athenian

Plato

A wealthy young aristocrat and the greatest of Socrates' students.

Aristotle

One of of Plato's students in the Academy. Was a young man who later taught Alexander the Great.

Pericles

Was a great general, orator, and statesman who held public office or was active in public life from 461 B.C.

Siddharta Gautama

Founder of Buddhism, another of the world's great religions, that also arose in India.

Confucius

A leading philosopher of the period, during Zhou era.

Homer

Blind poet that wrote the two epics "Iliad" and the "Odyssey"

Phillip II of Macedon

Young man that became king

Alexander the Great

Philip's 20-year-old son, who succeeded him in ruling. Conquered most of the Mediterranean and as far east as India.

Hannibal

One of the greatest generals of all time, who assembled a huge Carthaginian army that included foot soldiers, horse soldiers, and elephants.

Julius Caesar

A nephew of Marius, who became the most popular general of his time.

Augustus

Grandnephew to Caesar that began the Roman Empire. The reign was known as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace"

Cleopatra

Daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family, on the throne as a Roman ally.

Ovid

A poet that wrote love lyrics and the Metamorphoses, a collection of myths written in verse.

Virgil

Lived during Augustus' reign, was the greatest of the Roman poets. His epic poem, the Aeneid, tells the story of Aeneas, a prince of Troy.

Galen

Physician that wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day.

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