Objects including tools, clothing, works of art, weapons, and toys.
Set of beliefs, knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of people develops.
Earlier people that wandered from place to place in search of food.
The raising of crops for food.
The taming of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs.
Early people who lived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food.
A class of skilled workers
Neolithic Agricultural revolution
Shift in human history from food gathering to food producing.
Dugged ditches and canals to move water from the river to their fields
Division of labor
As methods of farming improved, fewer people had to work the fields. some people could specialize in other kinds of work.
The spread of ideas and other aspects of culture from one area.
A science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface.
The Nile River
Longest river in the world. Flows from north to south, and provides a natural route for transportation.
Form of ancient writing developed by Nile River valley people.
The Yellow River
Region in eastern asia.
Confucius' ideas and teachings in one work.
A form of community developed by the Sumerians
Believing in only one god
When the body is presented to make life after death possible. organs were removed from the body, which was then treated with chemicals.
The belief in the rebirth of souls.
Believing that many gods existed
An unusual stone, found in the village of Rosetta. carved in this stone were passages written in Greek, Hieroglyphics, and Egyptian writing style called demote.
Most striking Sumerian buildings that were temples. made of baked brick placed in layers.
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
The Indus River
River that flows to the southwest
The Mahabharata tells the story of a great battle in a kingdom in what is now northern India. Part of this empire is known as the Bhagavad Gita.
Are winds that mark the seasons in India.
A complex form of social organization that began to take shape after the Indo-Aryan migration.
Elite group of people that learned to read and write so that they could work for the government
A perfect peace.
Sumerian writing from the Latin word for wedge, cuneus. Developed from pictographic writing
A form of government in which an individual or a single people rules over many other peoples and territories
A government ruled by an upper class,
An alliance of city-states with Athens as leader. Athens used diplomacy to form this.
Government in which citizens take part.
Plays containing action or dialogue and involving conflict and emotion.
Colorful paintings made on wet plaster walls.
No longer purely Hellenistic, or Greek, this was a new "Greek-like" way of life.
Homer's great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War.
Conflicts between Greece and Persia.
Quarrels over trade divided Athens and Corinth. Tensions grew between Athens and Sparta until war broke out in 431 B.C
Homer's epic that tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus on his way home from the Trojan War.
White marble temple built in ancient Athens in honor of Athena.
The study of basic questions of reality and human existance.
Illegally took power 650-500B.C. but had the support of the people
Form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state.
Chief officials. Led the army and were judges. Could appoint a dictator to lead for 6 months.
Refuse to approve, as in a bill or law.
A small number of wealthy Roman families that held all governmental power.
Most of the population- artisans, shopkeepers, peasants, etc. A few were wealthy but most were poor
Three costly conflicts between Romans and Carthaginians over control of the Mediterranean and overseas expansion
Bridge-like structures that carried water from the mountains.
Lived between about 460B.C. and about 377B.C., is considered to be the founder of medical science.
Was a philosopher who believed that everything could be explained in terms of mathematics.
one of the most important thinkers of the new era that was an Athenian
A wealthy young aristocrat and the greatest of Socrates' students.
One of of Plato's students in the Academy. Was a young man who later taught Alexander the Great.
Was a great general, orator, and statesman who held public office or was active in public life from 461 B.C.
Founder of Buddhism, another of the world's great religions, that also arose in India.
A leading philosopher of the period, during Zhou era.
Blind poet that wrote the two epics "Iliad" and the "Odyssey"
Phillip II of Macedon
Young man that became king
Alexander the Great
Philip's 20-year-old son, who succeeded him in ruling. Conquered most of the Mediterranean and as far east as India.
One of the greatest generals of all time, who assembled a huge Carthaginian army that included foot soldiers, horse soldiers, and elephants.
A nephew of Marius, who became the most popular general of his time.
Grandnephew to Caesar that began the Roman Empire. The reign was known as the Pax Romana, or "Roman Peace"
Daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family, on the throne as a Roman ally.
A poet that wrote love lyrics and the Metamorphoses, a collection of myths written in verse.
Lived during Augustus' reign, was the greatest of the Roman poets. His epic poem, the Aeneid, tells the story of Aeneas, a prince of Troy.
Physician that wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day.