Small Intestine Diseases in Dogs and Cats

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Rondeau two hours

What is the mst common clinical sign associated with small intestinal disease?


Is weight loss more common with large or small bowel diarrhea?


Does large or small bowel diarrhea have tenesmus and increased urgency?


Treatment for non-specific enteritis?

withhold food for 12-24 hours then feed a bland diet for 2-3 days

Canine parvovirus is acquired by the _______-_______ route. It has an affinity for what cells?

fecal-oral, intestinal crypt cells

What breeds might be predisposed to parvovirus?

Rottweilers, Dobermans, Springers, APBT

A definitive parvo diagnosis is made by identifying _______ ______ _______ in the feces.

CPV-2 viral antigens

Treatment and prognosis for parvo?

supportive therapy, good with aggressive therapy

How to test for feline parvovirus (panleukopenia)?

use canine snap test

What happens with feline parvovirus (panleukopenia) infection in utero?

cerebellar hypoplasia

How is canine distemper transmitted? How long can it be shed?

aerosolization and inhalation, 60-90 days following infection

What is the progression of signs in distemper?

conjunctivitis and nasal discharge, cough, intestinal involvement, neurologic signs

How to diagnose distemper?

viral inclusion bodies in conjunctival scrapings or clinical suspicion

In what population is canine coronavirus/rotavirus severe? Infection route?

young puppies, oral-fecal

What is the causative agent of FIP? Transmission?

feline coronavirus, fecal-oral

Feline coronavirus can cause a _______ ______ in cats when they are first infected.

trnasient enteritis

What percentage of cats with coronavirus develop FIP?


Only way to confirm active coronavirus infection in cats?

immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescent staining of intestinal biopsies

How do FIV and FeLV typically cause diarrhea?

immune suppression leads to secondary infection

Two groups of animals most likely affected by campylobacter?

young or animals with concurrent diesase

Do all animals with campy have diarrhea?


How to diagnose campy?

fecal smear stained and identification of gram negative rods

How to confirm diagnosis of campy?

fecal culture

Treatment of choice for campy?


T/F: clostridium is commonly isolated from the feces of healthy animals?


Clinical signs of clostridium?

acute watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea

What provides the strongest evidence of clostridium infection?

enterotoxin assay

What is most often used as a test of clostridium infection?

response to treatment

Clostridium treatment?


Are there any bacteria we learned about that AREN'T present in the feces of normal animals?


Does giardia always cause diarrhea?

no, can be found in normal animals too

Most effective treatment for giardia?


Is Isospora commonly associated with disease? Treatment?

no, sulfamethoxine

What is the real concern with cryptosporidium?

public health (immunocompromised people)

Signs of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats? Environment?

waxing and waning large bowel diarrhea; multicat households or catteries

Test of choice for tritrichomonas foetus in cats?

fecal PCR

On average how long to clear up Tritrichomonas?

nine months

Possible treatment for Tritrichomonas?


Any animal with diarrhea should be treated with what?

broad spectrum dewormer

What dewormer will treat all parasites except tapeworm?


What fungus is found mainly in the SE, shows signs of GI obstruction, and has a grave prognosis?


What fungus is found in the Mississippi River valley and causes chronic large bowel diarrhea?


How to diagnose histoplasmosis?

rectal scraping or intestinal biopsy

What algae causes large bowel diarrhea and blindness?


What two treatments are needed for Salmon poisoning?

tetracycline for the Rickettsia and Pasziquantel for the fluke

What is HGE?

clinical syndrome of peracute onset of bloody vomiting and diarrhea with an elevated PCV and normal TS

What disease has "raspberry jam" diarrhea?


Three things needed to diagnose HGE?

compatible clinical signs, high PCV (65-85%), normal TS

What other diagnostic test might you want to do if you suspect HGE?

ACTH stim

Four treatments for HGE?

supportive care, antibiotics if translocation is suspected, antiemetics, withhold food then bland diet

Is PLE a disease?


Three hallmarks of PLE

hypoalbuminemia, hypoglobulinemia, hypocholesterolemia

Three most common causes of PLE?

IBD, intestinal lymphangiectasia, alimentary lymphoma

What is a common cause of chronic diarrhea in cats?

food sensitivity

Best way to diagnose a food sensitivity?

elimination diet trial and rechallenge

How soon might one see a response to a new diet in an elimination trial?

one week

Two types of SIBO?

primary (idiopathic) and secondary (to IBD or EPI)

Signalment for antibiotic-responsive diarrhea?

young, large breed dogs, GSD

Where is folate absorbed?

proximal small intestine

Where is cobalamin absorbed? What does it require?

distal small intestine (ileum), intrinsic factor

Supplementation of _________ improved clinical signs in 50% of treated cats with chronic GI disease.


Three antibiotics used to treat antibiotic-responsive diarrhea?

tylosin, metronidazole, oxytetracycline

The term IBD describes a _______ of GI disorders resulting in _______ signs of GI disease and histologic evidence of GI unflammation of unknown etiology.

spectrum, chronic

Four most common types of IBD from most to least common?

lymphocytic-plasmacytic, eosinophilic, granulomatous, suppurative

What is the likely etiology of IBD?

combination of factors (genetic, abnormal permeability, dietary antigens, self antigens, abnormal immune respone)

How to diagnose IBD?

biopsy showing evidence of inflammation with other causes ruled out

Animals with severe IBD may have normal __________.


When might you want to avoid biopsy to check for IBD?

severe hypoproteinemia

What is the mainstay treatment of IBD?

corticosteroids (prednisone and budesonide)

Why is budesonide a promising treatment for IBD?

acts locally in the gut

What characterizes intestinal lymphangiectasia?

marked dilation/dysfunction of intestinal lymphatics

Causes of primary and secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia?

primary is idiopathic maybe genetic, secondary due to any cause of lymphatic obstruction including IBD

Common breeds for primary intestinal lymphangiectasia?

Yorkies, Maltese, Norweigan Lundehund

Most common sign of intestinal lynphangiectasia?

chronic small bowel diarrhea

How to diagnose IL?


What sort of diet should be fed to an IL animal?

moderately fat restricted with medium chain triglycerides

What is the most common intestinal cancer of cats and second most common of dogs?


LSA in cats also looks like __________. Can biopsy easily differentiate them?

IBD, no

How to diagnose LSA? Treatment? Prognosis?

biopsy, chemotherapy, poor in dogs (30 days) better in cats (one year)

Treatment of choice for leiomyosarcoma/gastrointestinal stomal cell tumors?

surgical resection

Antidiarrheal therapy is ________ needed in veterinary practice.


Opiates work to increase __________ __________ and decrease _________ ________ to stop diarrhea.

segmental contraction, peristaltic contractions

Two commonly used antidiarrheal opiates?

loperamide, diphenoxylate

What drug to treat diarrhea turns stools greenish-black and is radioopaque?

bismuth subsalicylate

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