What is the mst common clinical sign associated with small intestinal disease?
Is weight loss more common with large or small bowel diarrhea?
Does large or small bowel diarrhea have tenesmus and increased urgency?
Treatment for non-specific enteritis?
withhold food for 12-24 hours then feed a bland diet for 2-3 days
Canine parvovirus is acquired by the _______-_______ route. It has an affinity for what cells?
fecal-oral, intestinal crypt cells
What breeds might be predisposed to parvovirus?
Rottweilers, Dobermans, Springers, APBT
A definitive parvo diagnosis is made by identifying _______ ______ _______ in the feces.
CPV-2 viral antigens
Treatment and prognosis for parvo?
supportive therapy, good with aggressive therapy
How to test for feline parvovirus (panleukopenia)?
use canine snap test
What happens with feline parvovirus (panleukopenia) infection in utero?
How is canine distemper transmitted? How long can it be shed?
aerosolization and inhalation, 60-90 days following infection
What is the progression of signs in distemper?
conjunctivitis and nasal discharge, cough, intestinal involvement, neurologic signs
How to diagnose distemper?
viral inclusion bodies in conjunctival scrapings or clinical suspicion
In what population is canine coronavirus/rotavirus severe? Infection route?
young puppies, oral-fecal
What is the causative agent of FIP? Transmission?
feline coronavirus, fecal-oral
Feline coronavirus can cause a _______ ______ in cats when they are first infected.
What percentage of cats with coronavirus develop FIP?
Only way to confirm active coronavirus infection in cats?
immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescent staining of intestinal biopsies
How do FIV and FeLV typically cause diarrhea?
immune suppression leads to secondary infection
Two groups of animals most likely affected by campylobacter?
young or animals with concurrent diesase
Do all animals with campy have diarrhea?
How to diagnose campy?
fecal smear stained and identification of gram negative rods
How to confirm diagnosis of campy?
Treatment of choice for campy?
T/F: clostridium is commonly isolated from the feces of healthy animals?
Clinical signs of clostridium?
acute watery or hemorrhagic diarrhea
What provides the strongest evidence of clostridium infection?
What is most often used as a test of clostridium infection?
response to treatment
Are there any bacteria we learned about that AREN'T present in the feces of normal animals?
Does giardia always cause diarrhea?
no, can be found in normal animals too
Most effective treatment for giardia?
Is Isospora commonly associated with disease? Treatment?
What is the real concern with cryptosporidium?
public health (immunocompromised people)
Signs of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats? Environment?
waxing and waning large bowel diarrhea; multicat households or catteries
Test of choice for tritrichomonas foetus in cats?
On average how long to clear up Tritrichomonas?
Possible treatment for Tritrichomonas?
Any animal with diarrhea should be treated with what?
broad spectrum dewormer
What dewormer will treat all parasites except tapeworm?
What fungus is found mainly in the SE, shows signs of GI obstruction, and has a grave prognosis?
What fungus is found in the Mississippi River valley and causes chronic large bowel diarrhea?
How to diagnose histoplasmosis?
rectal scraping or intestinal biopsy
What algae causes large bowel diarrhea and blindness?
What two treatments are needed for Salmon poisoning?
tetracycline for the Rickettsia and Pasziquantel for the fluke
What is HGE?
clinical syndrome of peracute onset of bloody vomiting and diarrhea with an elevated PCV and normal TS
What disease has "raspberry jam" diarrhea?
Three things needed to diagnose HGE?
compatible clinical signs, high PCV (65-85%), normal TS
What other diagnostic test might you want to do if you suspect HGE?
Four treatments for HGE?
supportive care, antibiotics if translocation is suspected, antiemetics, withhold food then bland diet
Is PLE a disease?
Three hallmarks of PLE
hypoalbuminemia, hypoglobulinemia, hypocholesterolemia
Three most common causes of PLE?
IBD, intestinal lymphangiectasia, alimentary lymphoma
What is a common cause of chronic diarrhea in cats?
Best way to diagnose a food sensitivity?
elimination diet trial and rechallenge
How soon might one see a response to a new diet in an elimination trial?
Two types of SIBO?
primary (idiopathic) and secondary (to IBD or EPI)
Signalment for antibiotic-responsive diarrhea?
young, large breed dogs, GSD
Where is folate absorbed?
proximal small intestine
Where is cobalamin absorbed? What does it require?
distal small intestine (ileum), intrinsic factor
Supplementation of _________ improved clinical signs in 50% of treated cats with chronic GI disease.
Three antibiotics used to treat antibiotic-responsive diarrhea?
tylosin, metronidazole, oxytetracycline
The term IBD describes a _______ of GI disorders resulting in _______ signs of GI disease and histologic evidence of GI unflammation of unknown etiology.
Four most common types of IBD from most to least common?
lymphocytic-plasmacytic, eosinophilic, granulomatous, suppurative
What is the likely etiology of IBD?
combination of factors (genetic, abnormal permeability, dietary antigens, self antigens, abnormal immune respone)
How to diagnose IBD?
biopsy showing evidence of inflammation with other causes ruled out
Animals with severe IBD may have normal __________.
When might you want to avoid biopsy to check for IBD?
What is the mainstay treatment of IBD?
corticosteroids (prednisone and budesonide)
Why is budesonide a promising treatment for IBD?
acts locally in the gut
What characterizes intestinal lymphangiectasia?
marked dilation/dysfunction of intestinal lymphatics
Causes of primary and secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia?
primary is idiopathic maybe genetic, secondary due to any cause of lymphatic obstruction including IBD
Common breeds for primary intestinal lymphangiectasia?
Yorkies, Maltese, Norweigan Lundehund
Most common sign of intestinal lynphangiectasia?
chronic small bowel diarrhea
How to diagnose IL?
What sort of diet should be fed to an IL animal?
moderately fat restricted with medium chain triglycerides
What is the most common intestinal cancer of cats and second most common of dogs?
LSA in cats also looks like __________. Can biopsy easily differentiate them?
How to diagnose LSA? Treatment? Prognosis?
biopsy, chemotherapy, poor in dogs (30 days) better in cats (one year)
Treatment of choice for leiomyosarcoma/gastrointestinal stomal cell tumors?
Antidiarrheal therapy is ________ needed in veterinary practice.
Opiates work to increase __________ __________ and decrease _________ ________ to stop diarrhea.
segmental contraction, peristaltic contractions
Two commonly used antidiarrheal opiates?
What drug to treat diarrhea turns stools greenish-black and is radioopaque?