Psych Ch. 4 PreTest

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Attachment in infants is evident by what age?

8 months

Who originally developed the concept of attachment?

John Bowlby

In Erikson's theory, the infant's earliest task is described as that of:

learning whether the world can be trusted to meet basic needs.

Which of the following children is most likely to be strongly affected by his or her mother's responsiveness?

Kim, who scores high on the Big Five trait of neuroticism.

According to the New York Longitudinal Study, by approximately three months of age, infants exhibit ___ temperamental traits.

Nine.

A type of day care in which several paid providers care for many children in a space designed especially for the purpose of day care is called:

Center day care.

The autonomy versus shame and doubt crisis involves the child's:

trying to control his or her own actions.

Baby erica met her grandfather's big dog for the first time. She immediately cried and tried to move away from the dog. Erica is most likely at least:

Nine months old.

Rodney was raised on a farm in Utah and enjoys the taste of beef liver cooked with onions. Sarah was raised in NYC and would never think of eating beef liver, but very much enjoys sushi. Which of the following might best explain these differences in food preference?

Social referencing.

Which of the following theorists stated that "failure to bring up a happy child, a well-adjusted child—assuming bodily health—falls squarely upon the parents' shoulders"?

Watson

Attachment in infants is solidified by what age?

1 year

Erika is 6 months old. Which of the following would you expect Erika to be able to do?

crawl on her belly

Which of the following emotions is last to develop in an infant?

pride

Which specific area of the cortex in the brain is responsible for emotional self-regulation?

the anterior cingulate gyrus

In a Canadian study, which of the following groups of children fared least well when cared for by someone other than their mothers during infancy?

boys from high-income families

A lasting emotional bond that an infant forms with a caregiver defines:

attachment

An increased level of cortisol is associated with an infant's

sadness

According to cognitive theory, infants use their early relationships to develop a set of assumptions that become a frame of reference they may use later in life. Such a set of assumptions is called a:

working model.

A type of day care in which children are cared for in the home of a nonrelative is called:

family day care.

The emotion of anger usually appears by the age of:

6 months

Which of the following fathers is likely to be as actively engaged with their infant as the child's mother?

Paulo, who is from Brazil

Tiffany is now 8 months old. Her mother has always been a very anxious person, as has her father. Tiffany's parents and siblings are all easily stressed and anxious. What effect might this environment have on Tiffany's brain development?

Her hypothalamus may grow more slowly than normal.

Which of the following is characteristic of the emotions that develop over the course of the first 2 years of life?

They are spontaneous and uncensored

Which of the following seems to predict insecure attachment?

Highly stressed parents

Which attachment pattern involves an infant who both resists and seeks contact when reunited with his or her caregiver?

Insecure-resistant/ambivalent

The theory that emphasizes the need for responsive maternal care and connects biosocial with psychosocial development is:

Psychoanalytic.

The case study of Jacob is an example of the importance of paying attention to deficits in a child's _____________ growth.

psychosocial

One of the most influential factors that determine a child's type of attachment is the:

Responsiveness of the parents.

Which of the following is one of the key aspects of the Strange Situation?

exploration of toys

Research indicates that toddlers with proximal mothers were more ______ but less _______.

compliant; self-aware

The relationship between brain maturation and the ability to express each emotion and sensation in an appropriate way is called:

synesthesia.

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