Biology: Ch.2

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Questions and Vocab in Chapter 2 of C-12 Biology Book

activation energy

energy need to start a chemical reaction

anabolic energy

endothermic reaction in organism

biochemical reactions

chemical reactions that occur inside the cells of living things

catabolic energy

exothermic reactions in organisms

endothermic energy

chemical reactions that absorbs energy

enzymes

protein that speeds up biochemical reaction

exothermic energy

chemical reactions that releases energy

metabolism

sum of all the biochemical reactions in an organism

product

substance that form as the result of a chemical reaction

reactants

starting material in chemical reaction

chemical equation

represents a chemical reaction

chemical reaction

a process that changes some chemical substances into others

catabolic reaction

What type of reaction occurs when you digest your food?

reducing the amount of activation energy

How do enzymes work?

CH4 +2O2 →CO2 +2H2O

What is the chemical equation for burning methane?

ph,temperature,ionic conditions

Activities of enzymes depend on what?

enzymes

Another name for "biological catalyst"

anabolic energy

The joining of amino acids to form a protein is what type of reaction?

activation energy

A push needed to start a chemical reaction?

reactants

During a chemical reaction, the __________ are used up to create the products.

energy

All chemical reactions need ____________ to get started

Exothermic

___________ reactions in organism are called catabolic reactions

Metabolism

Your ______________ includes both exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Bonds

A chemical reaction involves the breaking and forming of ____________

conserved

In a chemical reaction, all matter is ___________

Heat

Energy can be released during a chemical reaction in a form of ________ and light.

Elements

In a chemical reaction, there is the same amount of each ________ in the products as there was in the reactants.

anabolic

A ____________ reactions builds up bigger molecules from smaller ones.

make up cells and carry out life processes

List 2 functions of organic compounds

Carbohydrates and Lipids

Which 2 compounds of organic compounds store energy?

DNA have 2 polynucleotide chains, RNA have 1 polynucleotide chain

What is the main difference between RNA and DNA

100s amino acid

How many amino acids does small protein have?

1000s amino acid

How many amino acids does large protein have?

Carbon creates stable bonds with other elements and itself

Why is carbon considered the essential element of life?

compound

Water (H2O) is an

the number of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon atoms

What is the main difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

helps cells keep their shape,destroy foreign substances,speeds up biochemical reactions

What are functions of protein?

DNA

_______ is how inherited characteristics are passed from one generation to the next.

Lipid

What organic compound is the major component of cell membrane?

Cellulose

cell wall of plant is made out of

carbon

main element of organic compounds is

Lipid

organic compound that stores energy, forms cell membranes, carries message

DNA

organic compound that contain instructions for protein

Carbohydrates

organic compound that provides energy to cells, stores energy, form body structures

Protein

organic compound that helps cell keep their shape

Element

a pure substance, like carbon

Polysaccharide

may contain just a few simple sugars or thousands

Amino Acid

subunit that makes up proteins

Nucleotide

subunit used to make nucleic acids

Saturated fatty acid

lipid in which carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible

Unsaturated fatty acid

lipid in which carbon atoms are bonded to groups of atoms other then hydrogen

Phospholipid

major component of cell membranes

Matter

anything that take up space and has mass

Compound

A substance that consist of 2 or more elements

Antibodies

protein which binds foreign substance such as bacteria and targets them for destructions

Glucose

monosaccharide used for energy by the cells of most organisms

Hemoglobin

protein that binds with oxygen molecules

double helix

shape of DNA

Starch

used by plants to store energy

Cellulose

used by plants to form rigid walls around the cell

Genetic, RNA

DNA contains________ instructions for proteins and ______ helps assembles the protein.

Mass

Matter is anything that takes up space and ________

Acidic environment

Describe the best environment for the enzyme pepsin.

dissolves substances

Why is water so important

Hydronium ion

product from a breakdown of water, with a positive charge, forms another water molecule accepts the hydrogen ion

Photosynthesis-water is a reactant Respiration- water is a product

main difference between photosynthesis and cellar respiration in term of water

Water planet because 75% of surface is water

Earth is sometimes called the....

Lemon juice

.... is a strong acid

orange juice

example of solution

base

A solution with a lower concentration of hydronium ion is a

sticks together, boiling point, expands when freezes

Hydrogen bonds affect water's properties such as

icecaps and glaciers

Most freshwater is found where

boiling point

212F or 100C

pH scale

0-14

acid

pH less then 7

base

pH more then 7

Photosynthesis

6CO2+6H20+Energy->C6H12O6+6O2

hydroxide ions

-OH

pH

measure of acidity of a solution

solution

same composition throughout

pepsin

needs an acidic environment to work

pancreas

an organ that secretes a strong base into the small intestines

Polarity

difference in electrical charge within the same molecule

Hydrogen bond

holds water molecule together

Structure

Water's_____________ gives a unique properties that helps explain why it vital to all living things.

Lower

Ice floats on water because ice has a _________ density

Blood

____________ is slightly basic with a pH just above 7

positive

in a water molecule, hydrogen atoms have a ______________ charge.

indicators

indicates that a chemical reaction has a occurred

guanine

cytosine always binds with....

thymine

adenine always binds with....

brown paper bag

In a lipid test, the indicator is a...

buret solution

In a protein test, the indicator is a

iodine

In a starch(carbs) test, the indicator is

glucose strips

In a glucose(carbs) test, the indicator is

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