Radiation doses and effects

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explosures radiation doses and their effects Chap 6, sherer 33-34 bushong

1000 Gy or 100,000 rads

how much radiation causes instant death?

Instant death

what is the result of exposure of 1,000 Gy?

Instant death

gross disruption of cell form and structure, chemical changes, DNA breaks up, proteins coagulate

reproductive death

what is the result of exposure of 1-10 grays?

reproductive death

cell looses its ability to duplicate and produce daughter cells

apoptosis

radiosenstivity of invidual types of cells governs the dose required to cause ___________

apoptosis

cells die without attempting cell division, formerly called interphase death, or programed cell death

mitotic death

relatively small doses can cause ______, less than whats required to produce apoptosis in slowly dividing or nondividing cells

mitotic death

radiation inhibits cell division, and cell dies in 1 or more divisions

mitotic delay

.01 GY or 1 rad causes ______ _______

mitotic delay

failure of cell to start dividing on time, may resume normal fuction after its 'late start'

interference of function

permanant or temporary impairment of function other than division, may occur as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation, repair enzymes may fix, and cell can recover and continue function

hemologic depression

caused by whole body does of 0.25 GY or 25 rad within a few days

0.25 GY or 25r ad within a few days

what amount of radiation can cause hemologic depression?

3-4 GY or 300-400 rads

amount of radiation that causes death, without treatment

whole body dose over 5 GY

what amount of radiation causes death within 30-60 days?

1-10 Gy

radiation amount causing severe depletion of bone marrow, taking longer than a few weeks to repopulate

less than 1 GY or 100 rad

exposure amount allowing repopulation of bone marrow cells in a few weeks

greater than 10 GY

radiation amount which can cause a permanent decrease in stem cells which create blood

a few hundred centigrays

radiation amount to cause death of lymphocyte cells

.25 or 25 rads

amount that can depress the amount of lymphoctyes in blood, which can impair immune system

.5 GY

amount which reduces number of neutrophils in blood

granulocytes

upon exposure of radiation, the initial response causes an INCREASE in these cells, then with increased exposure they rapidly decrease in number, and then more slowly. Takes about 2 months to fully repopulate

less tha 0.5 GY or 50 rads

radiation that lowers thromboytes in blood

1-10 GY

exposure amount which requires 2 months for thromboytes to recover to original amount

over 50 GY or 5000 rads

very high exposure which causes death in a matter of hours

8-15 weeks

the window of maximum radiosensitivity to fetus

0.1 SV (10 rem)

radiation amount causing as much as 4% risk of mental retardation

less than 0.05 SV or 5 rem

radiation amount in a routine flouro abdomen

2 Gy or 200 rad

may cause temporary male sterility for up to 12 months

5-6 GY or 500-600 rad

amount which may cause permanent male sterility

0.1 GY- 10 rads

radiation amount which can cause genetic defects on future generations to male reproductive cells

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