complex form of social organization that began to take shape
perfect spiritual peace
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
form of government that unties different territories and people under the same rule
super marketplace in the city-state in Greece
government ruled by upper class
alliance of the city-states in ancient Greece with Athens as as leaders
government in which citizens take part
plays containing action or dialogue and usually involving conflict and emotion
paintings done on wet plaster walls
"Greek Like" way of life that combined ideas and values drawn from the Mediterranean and Asia
Homer's great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War
Conflict between Greece and Persia
War between Sparta and Athens that broke out in 431 B.C. and lasted for 27 years
Homer's epic that tells the story of the Greek hero Odysseus on his way home from the Trojan War
White marble temple built in ancient Athens in honor of Athena
study of basic questions of reality and human existence
In ancient Greek rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people with the people's support; later came to refer to rulers who exercise brutal and oppressive power.
form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state
Chief executives elected to run the government in ancient Rome
refuse to approve, as in a bill or law
powerful landowners who controlled Roman government and society
farmers and workers who made up most of the Roman population
Three costly conflicts between Romans & Carthaginians over control of the Mediterranean and overseas expansion
bridge like structures that carry water
Phillip II of Macedon
became king in 359 B.C.
Alexander the Great
he was the son of Philip the II, Alex had the best training and education possilbe [from greek philosopher Aristotle ] He almost never lost a battle and conquered much of the known world in that breif time. He also purposely spread Greek culture where ever he went, as well as marring two women from Palestine.
one of the greatest generals of all time assembled a huge Carthaginian army that included foot soldiers, horse soldiers, and elephants.
Nephew of Marius became consul in 59 B.C. Formed a political alliance called the First Triumvirate
Julius Caesar's nephew originally named Octavian
daughter of the ruling Ptolemy family, that was on the throne as a Roman ally
a poet wrote love lyrics and the Metamorphoses, a collection of myths written in verse
lived during Augustus reign, was the greatest of the Roman poets. His epic poem, the Aeneid, tells the story of Aeneas, a prince of Troy
physician, who wrote several volumes that, summarized all the medical knowledge of his day
is considered to be the founder of medicine. He wrote 60-70 medical studies. He taught that diseases come from natural causes, not punishment from gods
was a philospher who believed that everything could be expalined in terms of mathematics. He is best remembered as the developer of he Pythagorean Theorem.
one of the most important thinkers on the Golden Age. He taught that education was the key to personal growth.
was a wealthy young aristocrat; his teacher was Socrates. Plato took all of Socrates teachings and wrote them down. He dealt with government, education, and religion. He felt that perfection could never be reached in the physical world.
was one of Plato's students. He found his own school in Athens around 335 B.C He believed that every field of knowledge had to be studied logically. He collected as many facts as possible and organized them into systems.
was a great general orator and statesman who held public office or was active in public life from 461 B.C to 429 B.C. His leadership was so important t othe Athenian success that this period of time was called the Age of Pericles.
a leading philosopher collected his ideas and teachings in work caleed Analects in time. His teachings became known as Confucianism. Confucianism taught about the importance of family, respect for one's elders, and reverence for the past and one's ancestors.
blind poet who wrote the Odyssey and the Iliad
father of history (ancient Greek historian)
objects made and used by early humans
beliefs, knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of people acquire by living together
people who wander from place to place
raising of crops for food
taming of animals such as cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs
early people who lived by hunting animals and gathering plants for food
Neolithic Agricultural Revolution
shift in human history from food gathering to food producing
system of ditches and canals that transports water from a source into an agricultural field
Division of Labor
Characteristic of civilizations in which different people perform different jobs
spread of culture from one area of the world to another
the study of earth and everything on it
longest river in the world, it flows from south to north. It was dominated by the geography of Egypt
form of ancient writing developed by the Nile River valley people by about 3000 B.C
so much loess washes into the Huang River that it gives the river a yellow tint. This river is located in China.
collection of the ideas and teachings of Confucius
form of government that includes a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it
beilef in one god
process of preserving the body with chemicals after death
beief in the rebirth of souls
belief in many gods
black basalt stone found in 1799 that bears an inscription in hieroglypics, demotic characters, and Greek; gave the first clue to deciphering Egyptians hieroglypics
Sumerian temples made of sun-dried brick
Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
flows to the Persian Gulf, they carry rich soil. Fertile soil covered the lower part of the rivers in ancient times. Over time Neolithic people settled there and grew crops, they were the Sumerian people
great civilization arose from this, this civilization comes from the ruins of 2 ancient cities, Harappa and Mohenjo Daro
last 18 chapters of the Mahabharata stressing the idea of proper conduct for ones status
winds that mark the seasons in India