Infection Control DANB

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Dental Assisting National Board Exam: Infection Control

Study of Microorganisms

Microbiology

Capable of Producing Disease

Pathogen

Capable of Causing Serious Disease

Virulent

Bacteria that Grow in Oxygen

Aerobes

Bacteria that Grow in the Absence of Oxygen

Anaerobes

Organisms that grow in the presence or absence of Oxygen

Faculative Anaerobes

Single-Celled Microscopic Animal without a Rigid Cell Wall

Protozoa

Hidden Virus During Latency Period

Provirus

Infectious agents that do not contain DNA or RNA

Prions

Most Resistant form of Bacteria

Spore

Yeast Infection of the Oral Mucosa

Oral Candidiasis

Father of Microbiology

Louis Pasteur

First Person to Record Microorganisms as being responsible for hospital-acquired infections

Joseph Lister

Name of the Staining Process for Separating Bacteria

Gram Test

Herpes Simplex II

Genital Herpes

A Persistent Infection in which Symptoms come and go

Latent Infection

Symptoms that are quite Severe and Short in Duration

Acute

Standard Designed to Protect Employees against occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens

OSHA Blood borne Pathogen Standard

Touching or Contact with a Patient's Blood or Saliva

Direct Contact

Touching or Contact with a Contaminated Surface

Indirect Contact

Enters the mucosal surfaces of the eyes, nose or mouth

Droplet Infection

Exposure through skin such as, needle sticks, cuts and human bites

Percutaneous

Standard of Care designed to Protect healthcare providers from pathogens

Standard Precautions

Protective clothing, masks, gloves, and eye-wear to protect employees

Personal Protective Equipment

Waste that Presents Danger to Humans or the Environment

Hazardous Waste

Waste Capable of Transmitting Infectious Disease

Infectious Waste

Needles, scalpel blades, orthodontic wires, and Endodontic instruments are considered

Sharps

Waste that may contain body fluids such as gloves and patient napkins

Contaminated Waste

Immunity Present at Birth

Inherited Immunity

Immunity that Develops during a person's Lifetime

Acquired Immunity

Immunity that results when a person contracts a disease and recovers from it

Naturally Acquired Immunity

Immunity that occurs as a result of Vaccination

Artificially Acquired Immunity

Protective Eyewear must have

Side Shields

What type of gloves are worn to open drawers during a dental procedure

Overgloves

Another Term for Infectious Waste is

Regulated Waste

Fluid-Impervious material that is used to cover surfaces

Surface Barrier

Surfaces not directly touched but often touched by contaminated instruments

Transfer Surfaces

Removal of Bioburden before disinfection

Precleaning

Agent Capable of Inactivating Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Tuberculocidal

Disinfectant capable of killing a wide range of microbes

Broad-Spectrum

High-Level Disinfectant or Sterilant

Glutaraldehyde

EPA-Registered intermediate-level disinfectant with broad spectrum disinfecting action

Synthetic Phenol Compound

EPA-Registered intermediate-level hospital disinfectant

Iodophor

Disinfectant which destroys TB, viruses, fungi, and vegetative bacteria - used for disinfecting dental operatories

Intermediate-level Disinfectant

Disinfectant which destroys certain viruses and fungi, used for general housekeeping (walls, floors)

Low-level Disinfectant

Which Regulatory Agency Requires the use of Surface Disinfection

OSHA

Why Must Surfaces be Precleaned

Remove Bioburden

Where are Antiseptics used

Skin

Which Agency Regulates Disinfectants

EPA

Name of Disinfectant that can leave a reddish or yellowish stain

Iodophor

Sodium Hypochlorite

Bleach

Not an effective Surface Disinfectant

Alcohol

Complete Destruction of all living Microorganisms

Sterilization

Method of Sterilization by use of Steam under Pressure

Autoclave

Strips known as Spore Tests, contain bacterial spores to determine whether sterilizer is working

Biologic Indicators

Method of Sterilization by use of hot formaldehyde vapors under pressure

Chemical Vapor Sterilizer

Instruments that come into contact with oral tissues but do not penetrate bone

Semi-critical Instruments

Instruments that come into contact with in-tact skin only

Non-critical Instruments

Method of Sterilization by use of heated air

Dry Heat

Tapes, Strips or Tabs that change color when they reach a certain temperature

Multiparameter Indicators

Device that loosens and removes debris with the use of sound waves traveling through liquid

Ultrasonic Cleanser

Method of Precleaning instruments that is the LEAST desirable

Hand Scrubbing

Instruments should be packaged for sterilization to

Maintain Sterility

Best way to ensure sterilization has occurred

Biologic Indicator

When can you use 'flash' sterilization

When Instruments will be used right away

Major advantage of Chemical Vapor Sterilization

Will not rust instruments

Regulatory Agency concerned with Regulation of Sterilization Equipment

FDA

Non-Regulatory Agency that issues recommendations on health and safety

CDC

Professional Organization for Dentists

ADA

Regulatory Agency that enforces regulations that pertain to employee safety

OSHA

Resource for safety and infection prevention info. in Dentistry

OSAP

Federal Agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for prevention of work-related disease and injury

NIOSH

Regulatory Agency that deals with Environmental or Public Safety

EPA

A Form that Provides Health and Safety Info. Regarding Materials that Contain Chemicals

MSDS

Repeated Exposure over a Long Period

Chronic Exposure

High Level of Exposure over a Short Period of Time

Acute Exposure

Waste that contains chemicals that could pose risk

Hazardous Waste

How Should Chemicals be stored

Cool, dry, dark place

Slime-Producing bacterial communities that may also harbor fungi, algae and protozoa

Biofilm

Bacteria Floating in Water

Planktonic Bacteria

How often should micro-filters in waterlines be changed

Daily

According to CDC what kind of water should be used for Surgical Procedures

Sterile Water

A Substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria, often used for handwashing.

Antiseptic

The absence of Pathogens, or disease-causing microorganisms. Used to describe the prevention of Infection.

Asepsis

Conditions Present for Infection to Occur (3)

1. Susceptible Host 2. Sufficient Pathogen (in strength or number) 3. Portal of Entry

Needlestick Injury

Parental Exposure, Occupational Exposure

Shapes of Bacteria (3)

Spherical (Cocci), Rod (Bacilli), Spiral (Spirochetes)

Which PPE is removed first

Gloves

Autoclave Steam temp/PSI

250 Degrees Fahrenheit, 15-30 PSI

Purpose of Holding Solution

Prevent the Drying of Blood and debris on instruments

Ultrasonic Cleanser solution should be changed

Daily

Process which kills disease-causing microorganisms, but not necessarily all forms of life

Disinfection

Spore of Bacillus atrophaeus used to monitor

Dry Heat

The best time to clean and disinfect dental prosthesis or impression

Immediately after removal from patient's mouth

Scrap Amalgam should be collected and stored in

A Designated, dry, airtight container (May include Neutralizer)

All Containers holding Potentially Infectious Materials should be

Labeled with a Biohazard Sticker

Treating all Patients as if they could be Potentially Infectious

Universal Precautions

How many hours must instruments be submerged in Glutaraldehyde in order to achieve Sterilization

10 Hours

When should Dental Handpieces be Sterilized

After Each Use

A Liquid Soap used for Hand scrubbing may include

Iodine Surgical Scrub, Chlorohexadine Soap, Hexachlorophene Soap, Antimicrobial Soap etc.

Dental Mask Filtration

N95

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