diabetes nclex review

38 terms by deziree88 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

1. A patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus asks the nurse what "type 2" means in relation to diabetes. The nurse explains to the patient that type 2 diabetes differs from type 1 diabetes primarily in that with type 2 diabetes
a. the patient is totally dependent on an outside source of insulin.
b. there is decreased insulin secretion and cellular resistance to insulin that is produced.
c. the immune system destroys the pancreatic insulin-producing cells.
d. the insulin precursor that is secreted by the pancreas is not activated by the liver.

B
Rationale: In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces insulin, but the insulin is insufficient for the body's needs or the cells do not respond to the insulin appropriately. The other information describes the physiology of type 1 diabetes.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1255
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

2. A patient screened for diabetes at a clinic has a fasting plasma glucose level of 120 mg/dl (6.7 mmol/L). The nurse will plan to teach the patient about
a. use of low doses of regular insulin.
b. self-monitoring of blood glucose.
c. oral hypoglycemic medications.
d. maintenance of a healthy weight.

D
Rationale: The patient's impaired fasting glucose indicates prediabetes and the patient should be counseled about lifestyle changes to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes. The patient with prediabetes does not require insulin or the oral hypoglycemics for glucose control and does not need to self-monitor blood glucose.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1255
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

3. During a diabetes screening program, a patient tells the nurse, "My mother died of complications of type 2 diabetes. Can I inherit diabetes?" The nurse explains that

a. as long as the patient maintains normal weight and exercises, type 2 diabetes can be prevented.
b. the patient is at a higher than normal risk for type 2 diabetes and should have periodic blood glucose level testing.
c. there is a greater risk for children developing type 2 diabetes when the father has type 2 diabetes.
d. although there is a tendency for children of people with type 2 diabetes to develop diabetes, the risk is higher for those with type 1 diabetes.

B
Rationale: Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are at higher risk for developing type 2 diabetes. The risk can be decreased, but not prevented, by maintenance of normal weight and exercising. The risk for children of a person with type 1 diabetes to develop diabetes is higher when it is the father who has the disease. Offspring of people with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop diabetes than offspring of those with type 1 diabetes.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1256
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

4. A program of weight loss and exercise is recommended for a patient with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). When teaching the patient about the reason for these lifestyle changes, the nurse will tell the patient that
a. the high insulin levels associated with this syndrome damage the lining of blood vessels, leading to vascular disease.
b. although the fasting plasma glucose levels do not currently indicate diabetes, the glycosylated hemoglobin will be elevated.
c. the liver is producing excessive glucose, which will eventually exhaust the ability of the pancreas to produce insulin, and exercise will normalize glucose production.
d. the onset of diabetes and the associated cardiovascular risks can be delayed or prevented by weight loss and exercise.

D
Rationale: The patient with IFG is at risk for developing type 2 diabetes, but this risk can be decreased with lifestyle changes. Glycosylated hemoglobin levels will not be elevated in IFG and the Hb A1C test is not included in prediabetes testing. Elevated insulin levels do not cause the damage to blood vessels that can occur with IFG. The liver does not produce increased levels of glucose in IFG.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1255
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

5. When assessing the patient experiencing the onset of symptoms of type 1 diabetes, which question should the nurse ask?
a. "Have you lost any weight lately?"
b. "Do you crave fluids containing sugar?"
c. "How long have you felt anorexic?"
d. "Is your urine unusually dark-colored?"

A
Rationale: Weight loss occurs because the body is no longer able to absorb glucose and starts to break down protein and fat for energy. The patient is thirsty but does not necessarily crave sugar- containing fluids. Increased appetite is a classic symptom of type 1 diabetes. With the classic symptom of polyuria, urine will be very dilute.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1255, 1258
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

6. During a clinic visit 3 months following a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, the patient reports following a reduced-calorie diet. The patient has not lost any weight and did not bring the glucose-monitoring record. The nurse will plan to obtain a(n)
a. fasting blood glucose level.
b. urine dipstick for glucose.
c. glycosylated hemoglobin level.
d. oral glucose tolerance test.

C
Rationale: The glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1C) test shows the overall control of glucose over 90 to 120 days. A fasting blood level indicates only the glucose level at one time. Urine glucose testing is not an accurate reflection of blood glucose level and does not reflect the glucose over a prolonged time. Oral glucose tolerance testing is done to diagnose diabetes, but is not used for monitoring glucose control once diabetes has been diagnosed.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1258-1259
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

7. A patient who has just been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is 5 ft 4 in (160 cm) tall and weighs 182 pounds (82 kg). A nursing diagnosis of imbalanced nutrition: more than body requirements is developed. Which patient outcome is most important for this patient?
a. The patient will have a diet and exercise plan that results in weight loss.
b. The patient will state the reasons for eliminating simple sugars in the diet.
c. The patient will have a glycosylated hemoglobin level of less than 7%.
d. The patient will choose a diet that distributes calories throughout the day.

C
Rationale: The complications of diabetes are related to elevated blood glucose, and the most important patient outcome is the reduction of glucose to near-normal levels. The other outcomes are also appropriate but are not as high in priority.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1273
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

8. A college student who has type 1 diabetes normally walks each evening as part of an exercise regimen. The student now plans to take a swimming class every day at 1:00 PM. The clinic nurse teaches the patient to
a. delay eating the noon meal until after the swimming class.
b. increase the morning dose of neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin on days of the swimming class.
c. time the morning insulin injection so that the peak occurs while swimming.
d. check glucose level before, during, and after swimming.

D
Rationale: The change in exercise will affect blood glucose, and the patient will need to monitor glucose carefully to determine the need for changes in diet and insulin administration. Because exercise tends to decrease blood glucose, patients are advised to eat before exercising. Increasing the morning NPH or timing the insulin to peak during exercise may lead to hypoglycemia, especially with the increased exercise.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1269
Nursing Process: Implementation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

9. A patient with type 1 diabetes has received diet instruction as part of the treatment plan. The nurse determines a need for additional instruction when the patient says,
a. "I may have an occasional alcoholic drink if I include it in my meal plan."
b. "I will need a bedtime snack because I take an evening dose of NPH insulin."
c. "I will eat meals as scheduled, even if I am not hungry, to prevent hypoglycemia."
d. "I may eat whatever I want, as long as I use enough insulin to cover the calories."

D
Rationale: Most patients with type 1 diabetes need to plan diet choices very carefully. Patients who are using intensified insulin therapy have considerable flexibility in diet choices but still should restrict dietary intake of items such as fat, protein, and alcohol. The other patient statements are correct and indicate good understanding of the diet instruction.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1268
Nursing Process: Evaluation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

10. A 1200-calorie diet and exercise are prescribed for a patient with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. The patient tells the nurse, "I hate to exercise! Can't I just follow the diet to keep my glucose under control?" The nurse teaches the patient that the major purpose of exercise for diabetics is to
a. increase energy and sense of well-being, which will help with body image.
b. facilitate weight loss, which will decrease peripheral insulin resistance.
c. improve cardiovascular endurance, which is important for diabetics.
d. set a successful pattern, which will help in making other needed changes.

B
Rationale: Exercise is essential to decrease insulin resistance and improve blood glucose control. Increased energy, improved cardiovascular endurance, and setting a pattern of success are secondary benefits of exercise, but they are not the major reason.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1269
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

11. The nurse has been teaching the patient to administer a dose of 10 units of regular insulin and 28 units of NPH insulin. The statement by the patient that indicates a need for additional instruction is,
a. "I need to rotate injection sites among my arms, legs, and abdomen each day."
b. "I will buy the 0.5-ml syringes because the line markings will be easier to see."
c. "I should draw up the regular insulin first after injecting air into the NPH bottle."
d. "I do not need to aspirate the plunger to check for blood before I inject the insulin."

A
Rationale: Rotating sites is no longer necessary because all insulin is now purified human insulin, and the risk for lipodystrophy is low. The other patient statements are accurate and indicate that no additional instruction is needed.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1262
Nursing Process: Evaluation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

12. A patient with type 1 diabetes has an unusually high morning glucose measurement, and the health care provider wants the patient evaluated for possible Somogyi effect. The nurse will plan to
a. administer an increased dose of NPH insulin in the evening.
b. obtain the patient's blood glucose at 3:00 in the morning.
c. withhold the nighttime snack and check the glucose at 6:00 AM.
d. check the patient for symptoms of hypoglycemia at 2:00 to 4:00 AM.

B
Rationale: In the Somogyi effect, the patient's blood glucose drops in the early morning hours (in response to excess insulin administration), which causes the release of hormones that result in a rebound hyperglycemia. It is important to check the blood glucose in the early morning hours to detect the initial hypoglycemia. An increased evening NPH dose or holding the nighttime snack will further increase the risk for early morning hypoglycemia. Information about symptoms of hypoglycemia will not be as accurate as checking the patient's blood glucose in determining whether the patient has the Somogyi effect.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1263-1264
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

13. A patient receives a daily injection of 70/30 NPH/regular insulin premix at 7:00 AM. The nurse expects that a hypoglycemic reaction is most likely to occur between
a. 8:00 and 10:00 AM.
b. 4:00 and 6:00 PM.
c. 7:00 and 9:00 PM.
d. 10:00 PM and 12:00 AM.

B
Rationale: The greatest insulin effect with this combination occurs mid afternoon. The patient is not at a high risk at the other listed times, although hypoglycemia may occur.

Cognitive Level: Comprehension Text Reference: p. 1260
Nursing Process: Evaluation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

14. A patient using a split mixed-dose insulin regimen asks the nurse about the use of intensive insulin therapy to achieve tighter glucose control. The nurse should teach the patient that
a. intensive insulin therapy requires three or more injections a day in addition to an injection of a basal long-acting insulin.
b. intensive insulin therapy is indicated only for newly diagnosed type 1 diabetics who have never experienced ketoacidosis.
c. studies have shown that intensive insulin therapy is most effective in preventing the macrovascular complications characteristic of type 2 diabetes.
d. an insulin pump provides the best glucose control and requires about the same amount of attention as intensive insulin therapy.

A
Rationale: Patients using intensive insulin therapy must check their glucose level four to six times daily and administer insulin accordingly. A previous episode of ketoacidosis is not a contraindication for intensive insulin therapy. Intensive insulin therapy is not confined to type 2 diabetics and would prevent microvascular changes as well as macrovascular changes. Intensive insulin therapy and an insulin pump are comparable in glucose control.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1263
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

15. A diabetic patient is started on intensive insulin therapy. The nurse will plan to teach the patient about mealtime coverage using _____ insulin.
a. NPH
b. lispro
c. detemir
d. glargine

B
Rationale: Rapid or short acting insulin is used for mealtime coverage for patients receiving intensive insulin therapy. NPH, glargine, or detemir will be used as the basal insulin.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1260
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

16. Glyburide (Micronase, DiaBeta, Glynase) is prescribed for a patient whose type 2 diabetes has not been controlled with diet and exercise. When teaching the patient about glyburide, the nurse explains that
a. glyburide stimulates insulin production and release from the pancreas.
b. the patient should not take glyburide for 48 hours after receiving IV contrast media.
c. glyburide should be taken even when the blood glucose level is low in the morning.
d. glyburide decreases glucagon secretion.

A
Rationale: The sulfonylureas stimulate the production and release of insulin from the pancreas. If the glucose level is low, the patient should contact the health care provider before taking the glyburide, since hypoglycemia can occur with this category of medication. Metformin should be held for 48 hours after administration of IV contract, but this is not necessary for glyburide.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1265-1266
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

17. When teaching a patient with type 2 diabetes about taking glipizide (Glucotrol), the nurse determines that additional teaching about the medication is needed when the patient says,
a. "Since I can take oral drugs rather than insulin, my diabetes is not serious and won't cause many complications."
b. "If I overeat at a meal, I will still take just the usual dose of medication."
c. "If I become ill, I may have to take insulin to control my blood sugar."
d. "I should check with my doctor before taking any other medications because there are many that will affect glucose levels."

A
Rationale: The patient should understand that type 2 diabetes places the patient at risk for many complications and that good glucose control is as important when taking oral agents as when using insulin. The other statements are accurate and indicate good understanding of the use of glipizide.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1275
Nursing Process: Evaluation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

18. A patient with type 2 diabetes that is controlled with diet and metformin (Glucophage) also has severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA). During an acute exacerbation of the patient's arthritis, the health care provider prescribes prednisone (Deltasone) to control inflammation. The nurse will anticipate that the patient may
a. require administration of insulin while taking prednisone.
b. develop acute hypoglycemia during the RA exacerbation.
c. have rashes caused by metformin-prednisone interactions.
d. need a diet higher in calories while receiving prednisone.

A
Rationale: Glucose levels increase when patients are taking corticosteroids, and insulin may be required to control blood glucose. Hypoglycemia is not a complication of RA exacerbation or prednisone use. Rashes are not an adverse effect caused by taking metformin and prednisone simultaneously. The patient is likely to have an increased appetite when taking prednisone, but it will be important to avoid weight gain for the patient with RA.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1258, 1267
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

19. A hospitalized diabetic patient receives 12 U of regular insulin mixed with 34 U of NPH insulin at 7:00 AM. The patient is away from the nursing unit for diagnostic testing at noon, when lunch trays are distributed. The most appropriate action by the nurse is to
a. save the lunch tray to be provided upon the patient's return to the unit.
b. call the diagnostic testing area and ask that a 5% dextrose IV be started.
c. ensure that the patient drinks a glass of milk or orange juice at noon in the diagnostic testing area.
d. request that the patient be returned to the unit to eat lunch if testing will not be completed promptly.

D
Rationale: Consistency for mealtimes assists with regulation of blood glucose, so the best option is for the patient to have lunch at the usual time. Waiting to eat until after the procedure is likely to cause hypoglycemia. Administration of an IV solution is unnecessarily invasive for the patient. A glass of milk or juice will keep the patient from becoming hypoglycemic but will cause a rapid rise in blood glucose because of the rapid absorption of the simple carbohydrate in these items.

Cognitive Level: Analysis Text Reference: p. 1268
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

20. A patient with type 1 diabetes has been using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) as part of diabetes management. During evaluation of the patient's technique of SMBG, the nurse identifies a need for additional teaching when the patient
a. chooses a puncture site in the center of the finger pad.
b. washes the puncture site using soap and water.
c. says the result of 130 mg indicates good blood sugar control.
d. hangs the arm down for a minute before puncturing the site.

A
Rationale: The patient is taught to choose a puncture site at the side of the finger pad. The other patient actions indicate that teaching has been effective.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1270
Nursing Process: Evaluation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

21. A 63-year-old patient is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. When developing an education plan, the nurse's first action should be to
a. assess the patient's perception of what it means to have type 2 diabetes.
b. demonstrate how to check glucose using capillary blood glucose monitoring.
c. ask the patient's family to participate in the diabetes education program.
d. discuss the need for the patient to actively participate in diabetes management.

A
Rationale: Before planning education, the nurse should assess the patient's interest in and ability to self-manage the diabetes. After assessing the patient, the other nursing actions may be appropriate, but planning needs to be individualized to each patient.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p.1264
Nursing Process: Planning
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

22. Cardiac monitoring is initiated for a patient in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The nurse recognizes that this measure is important to identify
a. electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and dysrhythmias related to hypokalemia.
b. fluid overload resulting from aggressive fluid replacement.
c. the presence of hypovolemic shock related to osmotic diuresis.
d. cardiovascular collapse resulting from the effects of hyperglycemia.

A
Rationale: The hypokalemia associated with metabolic acidosis can lead to potentially fatal dysrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, which would be detected with ECG monitoring. Fluid overload, hypovolemia, and cardiovascular collapse are possible complications of DKA, but cardiac monitoring would not detect theses.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1281
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

23. A diabetic patient is admitted with ketoacidosis and the health care provider writes all of the following orders. Which order should the nurse implement first?
a. Start an infusion of regular insulin at 50 U/hr.
b. Give sodium bicarbonate 50 mEq IV push.
c. Infuse 1 liter of normal saline per hour.
d. Administer regular IV insulin 30 U.

C
Rationale: The most urgent patient problem is the hypovolemia associated with DKA, and the priority is to infuse IV fluids. The other actions can be accomplished after the infusion of normal saline is initiated.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1280
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

24. A diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (HHNC) is made for a patient with type 2 diabetes who is brought to the emergency department in an unresponsive state. The nurse will anticipate the need to
a. administer glargine (Lantus) insulin.
b. initiate oxygen by nasal cannula.
c. insert a large-bore IV catheter.
d. give 50% dextrose as a bolus.

C
Rationale: HHNC is initially treated with large volumes of IV fluids to correct hypovolemia. Regular insulin is administered, not a long-acting insulin. There is no indication that the patient requires oxygen. Dextrose solutions will increase the patient's blood glucose and would be contraindicated.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1281
Nursing Process: Planning NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

25. A patient with type 1 diabetes who uses glargine (Lantus) and lispro (Humalog) insulin develops a sore throat, cough, and fever. When the patient calls the clinic to report the symptoms and a blood glucose level of 210 mg/dl, the nurse advises the patient to
a. use only the lispro insulin until the symptoms of infection are resolved.
b. monitor blood glucose every 4 hours and notify the clinic if it continues to rise.
c. decrease intake of carbohydrates until glycosylated hemoglobin is less than 7%.
d. limit intake to non-calorie-containing liquids until the glucose is within the usual range.

B
Rationale: Infection and other stressors increase blood glucose levels and the patient will need to test blood glucose frequently, treat elevations appropriately with insulin, and call the health care provider if glucose levels continue to be elevated. Discontinuing the glargine will contribute to hyperglycemia and may lead to DKA. Decreasing carbohydrate or caloric intake is not appropriate as the patient will need more calories when ill. Glycosylated hemoglobins are not used to test for short-term alterations in blood glucose.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1272
Nursing Process: Implementation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

26. While hospitalized and recovering from an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis, the patient calls the nurse and reports feeling anxious, nervous, and sweaty. Based on the patient's report, the nurse should
a. obtain a glucose reading using a finger stick.
b. administer 1 mg glucagon subcutaneously.
c. have the patient eat a candy bar.
d. have the patient drink 4 ounces of orange juice.

A
Rationale: The patient's clinical manifestations are consistent with hypoglycemia and the initial action should be to check the patient's glucose with a finger stick or order a stat blood glucose. If the glucose is low, the patient should ingest a rapid-acting carbohydrate, such as orange juice. Glucagon might be given if the patient's symptoms become worse or if the patient is unconscious. Candy bars contain fat, which would slow down the absorption of sugar and delay the response to treatment.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1282
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

27. A patient recovering from DKA asks the nurse how acidosis occurs. The best response by the nurse is that
a. insufficient insulin leads to cellular starvation, and as cells rupture they release organic acids into the blood.
b. when an insulin deficit causes hyperglycemia, then proteins are deaminated by the liver, causing acidic by-products.
c. excess glucose in the blood is metabolized by the liver into acetone, which is acidic.
d. an insulin deficit promotes metabolism of fat stores, which produces large amounts of acidic ketones.

D
Rationale: Ketoacidosis is caused by the breakdown of fat stores when glucose is not available for intracellular metabolism. The other responses are inaccurate.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1278-1279
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

28. Intramuscular glucagon is administered to an unresponsive patient for treatment of hypoglycemia. Which action should the nurse take after the patient regains consciousness?
a. Give the patient a snack of cheese and crackers.
b. Have the patient drink a glass of orange juice or nonfat milk.
c. Administer a continuous infusion of 5% dextrose for 24 hours.
d. Assess the patient for symptoms of hyperglycemia.

A
Rationale: Rebound hypoglycemia can occur after glucagon administration, but having a meal containing complex carbohydrates plus protein and fat will help prevent hypoglycemia. Orange juice and nonfat milk will elevate blood sugar rapidly, but the cheese and crackers will stabilize blood sugar. Administration of glucose intravenously might be used in patients who were unable to take in nutrition orally. The patient should be assessed for symptoms of hypoglycemia after glucagon administration.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1282
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

29. A type 1 diabetic patient who was admitted with severe hypoglycemia and treated tells the nurse, "I did not have any of the usual symptoms of hypoglycemia." Which question by the nurse will help identify a possible reason for the patient's hypoglycemic unawareness?
a. "Do you use any calcium-channel blocking drugs for blood pressure?"
b. "Have you observed any recent skin changes?"
c. "Do you notice any bloating feeling after eating?"
d. "Have you noticed any painful new ulcerations or sores on your feet?"

C
Rationale: Hypoglycemic unawareness is caused by autonomic neuropathy, which would also cause delayed gastric emptying. Calcium-channel blockers are not associated with hypoglycemic unawareness, although -adrenergic blockers can prevent patients from having symptoms of hypoglycemia. Skin changes can occur with diabetes, but these are not associated with autonomic neuropathy. If the patient can feel painful areas on the feet, neuropathy has not occurred.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1281
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

30. A patient with type 2 diabetes has sensory neuropathy of the feet and legs and peripheral vascular disease evidenced by decreased peripheral pulses and dependent rubor. The nurse teaches the patient that
a. the feet should be soaked in warm water on a daily basis.
b. flat-soled leather shoes are the best choice to protect the feet from injury.
c. heating pads should always be set at a very low temperature.
d. over-the-counter (OTC) callus remover may be used to remove callus and prevent pressure.

B
Rationale: The patient is taught to avoid high heels and that leather shoes are preferred. The feet should be washed, but not soaked, in warm water daily. Heating pad use should be avoided. Commercial callus and corn removers should be avoided; the patient should see a specialist to treat these problems.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1287
Nursing Process: Implementation
NCLEX: Health Promotion and Maintenance

31. A newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patient likes to run 3 miles several mornings a week. Which teaching will the nurse implement about exercise for this patient?
a. "You should not take the morning NPH insulin before you run."
b. "Plan to eat breakfast about an hour before your run."
c. "Afternoon running is less likely to cause hypoglycemia."
d. "You may want to run a little farther if your glucose is very high."

B
Rationale: Blood sugar increases after meals, so this will be the best time to exercise. NPH insulin will not peak until mid-afternoon and is safe to take before a morning run. Running can be done in either the morning or afternoon. If the glucose is very elevated, the patient should postpone the run.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1269
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

32. Amitriptyline (Elavil) is prescribed for a diabetic patient with peripheral neuropathy who has burning foot pain occurring mostly at night. Which information should the nurse include when teaching the patient about the new medication?
a. Amitriptyline will help prevent the transmission of pain impulses to the brain.
b. Amitriptyline will improve sleep and make you less aware of nighttime pain.
c. Amitriptyline will decrease the depression caused by the pain.
d. Amitriptyline will correct some of the blood vessel changes that cause pain.

A
Rationale: Tricyclic antidepressants decrease the transmission of pain impulses to the spinal cord and brain. Tricyclics also improve sleep quality and are used for depression, but that is not the major purpose for their use in diabetic neuropathy. The blood vessel changes that contribute to neuropathy are not affected by tricyclics.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1285
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

33. A patient with type 2 diabetes is scheduled for an outpatient coronary arteriogram. Which information obtained by the nurse when admitting the patient indicates a need for a change in the patient's regimen?
a. The patient's most recent hemoglobin A1C was 6%.
b. The patient takes metformin (Glucophage) every morning.
c. The patient uses captopril (Capoten) for hypertension.
d. The patient's admission blood glucose is 128 mg/dl.

B
Rationale: To avoid lactic acidosis, metformin should not be used for 48 hours after IV contrast media are administered. The other patient data indicate that the patient is managing the diabetes appropriately.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1266
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

34. The health care provider orders oral glucose tolerance testing for a patient seen in the clinic. Which information from the patient's health history is most important for the nurse to communicate to the health care provider?
a. The patient had a viral illness 2 months ago.
b. The patient uses oral contraceptives.
c. The patient runs several days a week.
d. The patient has a family history of diabetes.

B
Rationale: Oral contraceptive use may falsely elevate oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) values. A viral 2 months previously illness may be associated with the onset of type 1 diabetes but will not falsely impact the OGTT. Exercise and a family history of diabetes both can affect blood glucose but will not lead to misleading information from the OGTT.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1267
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

35. Which of these laboratory values noted by the nurse when reviewing the chart of a diabetic patient indicates the need for further assessment of the patient?
a. Fasting blood glucose of 130 mg/dl
b. Noon blood glucose of 52 mg/dl
c. Glycosylated hemoglobin of 6.9%
d. Hemoglobin A1C of 5.8%

B
Rationale: The nurse should assess the patient with a blood glucose level of 52 mg/dl for symptoms of hypoglycemia, and give the patient some carbohydrate-containing beverage such as orange juice. The other values are within an acceptable range for a diabetic patient.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: pp. 1281-1282
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

36. After the home health nurse has taught a patient and family about how to use glargine and regular insulin safely, which action by the patient indicates that the teaching has been successful?
a. The patient disposes of the open insulin vials after 4 weeks.
b. The patient draws up the regular insulin in the syringe and then draws up the glargine.
c. The patient stores extra vials of both types of insulin in the freezer until needed.
d. The patient's family prefills the syringes weekly and stores them in the refrigerator.

A
Rationale: Insulin can be stored at room temperature for 4 weeks. Glargine should not be mixed with other insulins or prefilled and stored. Freezing alters the insulin molecule and should not be done.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1261
Nursing Process: Evaluation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

37. The nurse teaches the diabetic patient who rides a bicycle to work every day to administer morning insulin into the
a. thigh.
b. buttock.
c. arm.
d. abdomen.

D
Rationale: Patients should be taught not to administer insulin into a site that will be exercised because exercise will increase the rate of absorption. The thigh, buttock, and arm are all exercised by riding a bicycle.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1262
Nursing Process: Implementation NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

38. A diabetic patient has a new order for inhaled insulin (Exubera). Which information about the patient indicates that the nurse should contact the patient before administering the Exubera?
a. The patient has a history of a recent myocardial infarction.
b. The patient's blood glucose is 224 mg/dl.
c. The patient uses a bronchodilator to treat emphysema.
d. The patient's temperature is 101.4° F.

C
Rationale: Exubera is not recommended for patients with emphysema. The other data do not indicate any contraindication to using Exubera.

Cognitive Level: Application Text Reference: p. 1263
Nursing Process: Assessment NCLEX: Physiological Integrity

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set