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Definitions fro book World Cultures and Geography Eastern Hemisphere.

Demography

the branch of sociology that studies the characteristics of human populations

Mesopotamia

Land between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

Fertile Crescent

A region stretching from the Persian Gulf northwest up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and west over to the Mediterranean Sea

Relief

The difference in the elevation of a landform from its lowest point to its highest point.

Plate Tectonics

the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust

Spreading Center

The region at the crest of a mid-ocean ridge, where new crust is being formed by seafloor spreading.

Subduction Fault

a fault along which a tectonic plate subducts under another

Strike/Slip Faulting

When plates of the earth strike each other or slip and make a fault.

Domus

home

Cosmology

the branch of astrophysics that studies the origin and evolution and structure of the universe

Ur

an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River

Paleolithic

second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC

Mesolithic

middle part of the Stone Age beginning about 15,000 years ago

Neolithic

latest part of the Stone Age beginning about 10,000 BC in the middle east (but later elsewhere)

Ubeidiya

Site on Jordan River (Israel), on natural corridor out of Afr. No hominid fossils, but stone tools similar to those from E Afr (Oldowan), and many Afr mammal bones, ~1.5-1.6 myr.

Homo Erectus

extinct species of primitive hominid with upright stature but small brain

Archaic Homo Sapien

~400,000 ya; large brain, forehead, slight brow ridge, rounded skulls

Homo Neanderthal

inhabited parts of Europe and Asia about lived from about 350,000 to 30,000 years ago

Skhul Cave

One of the Middle Paleolithic sites in Israel where modern human skeletons have been found

Shanidar Cave

Neanderthal burial site--individual buried in cave with flowers (pollen)
Evidence of compassion--individual was previously horribly wounded, but survived--had to have been taken care of by someone

Catal Hayuk

A large neolithic city in modern Turkey. The first city ever. They used stone and bone for tools but died out before metal was used. It was from 6500BCE-5700BCE.

Palenology

The scientific study of spores and pollen.

Plan View Map

The top view of something.

Cross-Section Map

Drawing that shows a view of something as if you could slice through it

Profile Map

a drawing which outlines the surface of the land showing the height and depths of hills and valleys.

Strata

Layers of the earth

Zoroastrianism

system of religion founded in Persia in the 6th century BC by Zoroaster

Dualism

the doctrine that reality consists of two basic opposing elements, often taken to be mind and matter (or mind and body), or good and evil

Ahura Mazda

chief deity of Zoroastrianism

Theocratic

of or relating to or being a theocracy

Judaism

the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud

Monotheism

belief in a single God

Allah

Muslim name for the one and only God

Yahweh

a name for the God of the Old Testament as transliterated from the Hebrew consonants YHVH`

Baha'i

a teacher of or believer in Bahaism

Norm

a statistic describing the location of a distribution

Ritual

A set of regularly followed ceremonies.

Taboo

an inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion

Ontos

being

Quercus

oaks

Juniperus

junipers

Opuntia

large genus of cactuses native to America: prickly pears

Berekhat Ram, Israel

A Palaeolithic site.

Stratigraphic Map

A map showing the areal distribution, configuration, or aspect of a stratigraphic unit or surface, such as an isopach map or a lithofacies map.

Avesta Texts

Primary collection of sacred texts of Zoroastrianism

Diospyrus

a genus of trees or shrubs

Torah

The first five books of the Hebrew Scriptures.

Bible

The sacred book of Christianity, a collection of ancient writings including the books of both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

Quran

the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina

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