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Why does Abigail Williams live with Reverend Parris?

She is having an affair with him.
She is his servant.
She is his niece.
She is his illegitimate daughter.

she is his niece

. Which of these characters is not condemned for witchery?

Rebecca Nurse
Giles Corey
Bridget Bishop
John Proctor

giles corey

Why does Reverend Parris wish to spare Proctor?

He fears for his life if a respected man is hanged.
He is convinced that Proctor is innocent.
He wishes to tear down the court.
He wants to have revenge against Abigail.

he fears for his life if a respected man is hanged

"The Devil is precise; the marks of his presence are definite as stone." What is the significance of this line?

It is a veiled threat that Reverend Parris uses against Proctor for opposing him.
It is ironic, for Reverend Hale is using ambiguous marks to define the devil's presence.
It shows that Mary Warren is a prideful girl who thinks herself the superior of the Proctors.
It foreshadows Giles Corey's death by stoning.

It is ironic, for Reverend Hale is using ambiguous marks to define the devil's presence.

Which of the following did not occur during the dancing?

Tituba attempted to conjure Ruth Putnam's sisters.
Mercy Lewis danced naked.
Abigail Williams drank a charm to kill Goody Proctor.
Susanna Walcott murdered a frog and a rabbit for Tituba's spell.

Susanna Walcott murdered a frog and a rabbit for Tituba's spell.

"More weight." What of the following is not significant about this line?

Elizabeth mentions this to John as he decides whether or not to admit to witchcraft, serving as an example of a friend who sacrificed himself for a greater good.
Giles chooses his death, sacrificing himself to spare others.
Danforth erroneously believes that Giles will admit to witchery if placed under greater torture.
Because Giles dies by refusing to answer questions, he is not excommunicated and dies a Christian.

Danforth erroneously believes that Giles will admit to witchery if placed under greater torture.

. Which of the following characters does not support John Proctor's decision to falsely admit to witchcraft?

Reverend Hale
Elizabeth Proctor
Deputy Governor Danforth
Reverend Parris

elizabeth proctor

Why do many of the accused admit to witchcraft?

By admitting to witchcraft they guarantee that they will not be executed.
By admitting to witchcraft they can accuse others of the same crime.
They are forced to admitting to witchcraft under duress and torture.
They are actually witches.

By admitting to witchcraft they guarantee that they will not be executed.

Which of the following is not a complaint that Proctor has against Reverend Parris?

Parris wastes the church money on extravagant items.
Parris demands too much compensation, such as the right to his house.
Parris reaches out for land at the expense of his neighbors
Parris focuses on hell and damnation in his services

Parris reaches out for land at the expense of his neighbors

"Your justice would freeze beer." To whom does this line refer?

Thomas Putnam
Elizabeth Proctor
Deputy Governor Danforth
Reverend Parris

elizabeth proctor

What grudge do the Putnams not have against the Nurses?

The Nurses opposed the Putnams' choice for minister.
The Nurses and their allies broke away from Salem to form a new community.
The Nurses own land that the Putnams covet.
Rebecca Nurse has never lost a child nor grandchild, while Mrs. Putnam has lost all but one of her children.

the nurses own land that the outnams convet

What does the commandment that Proctor forgets concern?

Murder
Blasphemy
Lying
Adultery

adultery

What victory would the Devil have to win a soul already bad?" What is the significance of this line?

It shows that Reverend Parris suspects everybody of witchcraft.
It foreshadows the eventual charges against respectable citizens such as Rebecca Nurse.
It foreshadows Mr. Putnam's charges against George Jacobs.
It is ironic, for the speaker is a lost soul charging others with villainy.

It foreshadows the eventual charges against respectable citizens such as Rebecca Nurse.
It foreshadows Mr. Putnam's charges against George Jacobs.

What is the likely reason that Old Giles cannot say his prayers?

He is easily frightened.
He is forgetful and barely knows his prayers.
Rebecca Nurse sent her spirit out against him.
His wife's reading blocks him from saying his prayers.

he is forgetful and barely knows his prayers

Theology, sir, is a fortress; no crack in a fortress may be accounted small." What is the significance of this line?

It shows the arrogance of the court in believing itself infallible.
It shows that Reverend Hale is invariably fixed on minor details.
It shows that any person may be suspected of witchcraft for any small fault.
It shows the hypocrisy of Reverend Parris, who himself has major flaws.

it shows that any person may be suspected of witch craft for any small fault

"The Crucible" is an allegorical tale that relates most strongly to which contemporary event for Arthur Miller?

The Holocaust
The Nuremberg trials
The McCarthy hearings
The Starr report

the McCarthy hearings

Which of the following is not evidence used by Hale against the Proctors?

Mary Warren's poppet
The failure of their children to be baptised.
John's affair with Abigail Williams
The Proctor's absence from church.

John's affair with abigail williams

Which of the following is not matched to the person whom he/she accuses of witchcraft?

Tituba : Sarah Good
Ann Putnam: Rebecca Nurse
Abigail Williams : Elizabeth Proctor
Betty Parris: George Jacobs

betty parris: george jacobs

Which character in the play is compared to Pontius Pilate?

Thomas Putnam
Reverend John Hale
Giles Corey
Reverend Samuel Parris

reverend john hale

Which of the following is not matched to their motive for promoting the witchcraft trials?

Samuel Parris : paranoia
John Hathorne : superstition
Abigail Williams : lust
Thomas Putnam : greed

John Hawthorne:Superstition

What is the significant about Danforth's support for Proctor's confession?

It shows that he will bend the rules whenever it suits him.
It shows that he knows that there are no witches in Salem.
It shows that he has turned against Putnam and Parris.
It shows that his interest is in preserving the court and not in actual justice.

It shows that his interest is in preserving the court and not in actual justice.

Which character proclaims that Abigail Williams should be "ripped out of the world"?

Samuel Parris
Elizabeth Proctor
John Hale
John Proctor

elizabeth proctor

Which line best represents Elizabeth Proctor's view in the trials?

"I cannot think the Devil may own a woman's soul when she keeps an upright way."
"The shining sun is up, and them that fear not light will surely praise it."
"If Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothing's left to stop the whole green world from burning."
"Remember, until an hour before the Devil fell, God thought him beautiful in Heaven."

"I cannot think the Devil may own a woman's soul when she keeps an upright way."

What is significant about Giles Corey's charge against Thomas Putnam?

It illustrates the theme of the obscure division between public and private.
It illustrates the theme of the novel of passing blame from one character to another.
It is ironic, for Giles Corey is condemned for giving evidence that is hearsay, while equally invalid evidence is used to condemn persons for witchcraft.

It is ironic, for Giles Corey is condemned for giving evidence that is hearsay, while equally invalid evidence is used to condemn persons for witchcraft.

What is the significance of the line "before the laws of God we are as swine! We cannot read his will."

This demonstrates Proctor's contempt for the intellectual abilities of men.
This is ironic, for Danforth believes that we can read God's will, or else he would not condemn people for witchcraft.
This demonstrates the change in Reverend Hale, for at the beginning of the play he believed that he could ascertain any supernatural phenomenon.
When Elizabeth argues this, it shows that she does not want John to confess.

This demonstrates the change in Reverend Hale, for at the beginning of the play he believed that he could ascertain any supernatural phenomenon.

Match each character with the proper description.
1. old man who is pressed with stones
2. girl who leads the accusations
3. slave who teaches the children about "spirits"
4. worthy woman put to death as a witch
5. comes to Salem to help with witch problem
6. uses the witch tales to carry out personal vengeance
7. tries to stop the trials, then charges Proctor
8. man whom Abigail hopes to marry after his wife is hanged
9. tolerates no challenge to his authority
10. minister who fears there is a conspiracy against him
a. Reverend John Hale
b. Tituba
c. Giles Corey
d. Judge Danforth
e. Mary Warren
f. Thomas Putnam
g. Reverend Samuel Parris
h. Abigail Williams
j. John Proctor
k. Rebecca Nurse

1. c
2. h
3. b
4. k
5. a
6. f
7. e
8. j
9. d
10. g

TRUE-FALSE Mark each statement A for True and B for False.
11. Because of his interest in children, Reverend Parris devotes his ministry to them.
12. The witch hunt becomes an opportunity for the people of Salem to band together as a community.
13. Ann Putnam believes Tituba can speak to the dead.
14. Reverend Parris sees the girls dancing in the woods.
15. Abigail admits placing a needle in the poppet that Marry Warren gives to Elizabeth.
16. Elizabeth Proctor believes that her husband's affair with Abigail is only a product of Elizabeth's imagination.
17. Abigail Williams accuses Elizabeth Proctor of being a witch.
18. The tradition of strict social control breaks down in Salem.
19. Hale is a devoted supporter of the trials throughout The Crucible.
20. Proctor destroys his confession without signing it.

11. b
12. b
13. a
14. a
15. b
16. b
17. a
18. a
19. b
20. b

MULTIPLE-CHOICE Choose the letter of the phrase that best completes each sentence.
21. Because she wants to know why her seven children have died, Ann Putnam
a. seeks advice from Dr. Griggs.
b. sends her daughter, Ruth, to Tituba.
c. asks Reverend Parris to pray with her.
d. goes into the woods with Elizabeth Proctor.


22. According to Betty Parris, Abigail drank a charm to kill
a. John Proctor. b. Elizabeth Proctor. c. Reverend Parris. d. Ann Putnam.

23. An accused witch can escape execution by
a. confessing to the charge.
b. accusing another "witch."
c. denying the charge.
d. accepting life imprisonment.

24. When asked to recite the Commandments, Proctor forgets the Commandment about
a. stealing.
b. honoring his father and mother.
c. adultery.
d. coveting his neighbor's goods.

25. When Mary Warren gives her deposition, disclaiming any familiarization with the Devil, the other girls
a. confess with her and ask for forgiveness.
b. accuse Abigail of directing them in the evil deeds.
c. mimic Mary and claim she has taken the form of a bird.
d. refuse to come in the same room with her.

26. Elizabeth Proctor condemns herself by
a. collecting poppets.
b. denying her husband's affair.
c. beating Mary Warren.
d. confessing to witchcraft.

27. Reverend Parris becomes uneasy about the executions when
a. the village is uneasy.
b. his daughter is condemned.
c. he knows the trials are a farce.
d. all of these.

28. John Proctor frequently absents himself from the church because he
a. dislikes the minister.
b. is an atheist.
c. lives too far from the town.
d. prefers working over praying.

29. Hathorne believes the children's accusations are motivated by
a. hatred.
b. knowledge of goodness.
c. the voice of God.
d. all of these.




30. An accused witch is put to death by
a. burning at the stake.
b. being crushed with stones.
c. drowning.
d. hanging.

31. Elizabeth Proctor's execution is postponed because
a. she obtains a petition for her release.
b. she is pregnant.
c. the court lacks sufficient evidence.
d. Mary Warren testifies for her.

32. Giles Corey escapes being condemned a wizard because he
a. confesses.
b. shoots himself.
c. refuses to answer the charge.
d. condemns another.

33. Parris desperately wants Proctor to confess because Parris
a. wants to appease the village.
b. knows Proctor is innocent.
c. hates Proctor.
d. none of these.

34. In the final scenes of the play, Danforth is unable to pardon Proctor because
a. the village would overthrow his authority.
b. Danforth doesn't have the power.
c. it would cast doubt on the guild to those already executed.
d. all of these.

35. Which of the following statements best describes Parris' theology?
a. love and justice
b. "an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth"
c. brotherhood
d. hellfire and brimstone

36. John Proctor's vocation is
a. merchant.
b. farmer.
c. teacher.
d. lawyer.

37. When her first comes to Salem, Reverend John Hale's mood is
a. optimistic and confident.
b. vengeful.
c. cautious and sober.
d. skeptical.


38. Mary Warren withdraws her testimony against the investigations because
a. she knows she is admitting to perjury.
b. the other girls accuse her of witchcraft.
c. she is in love with Proctor.
d. all of these.

39. Proctor confesses to an affair with Abigail Williams to
a. satisfy his wife.
b. cleanse his soul of guilt.
c. discredit her testimony.
d. free himself from jail.

40. Which one of the following characters instigates the investigations and later condemns them?
a. Judge Hathorne
b. John Proctor
c. Reverend John Hale
d. Sarah Good

21. b
22. b
23. a
24. c
25. c
26. b
27. a
28. a
29. c
30. d
31. b
32. c
33. a
34. c
35. d
36. b
37. a
38. b
39. c
40. c

MATCHING Match the following characters with the quotations listed below. Characters may be used more than once.

a. Reverend Parris
b. Danforth
c. Reverend Hale
d. Elizabeth Proctor
e. Rebecca Nurse
f. Abigail Williams
g. John Proctor
h. Mary Warren

41. "They [his books] must be; they are weighted with authority."
42. "Gah! I'd almost forgot how strong you are, John Proctor!"
43. "John, if it were not Abigail that you must go to hurt, would you falter now? I think not."
44. "Abby, I may think of you softly from time to time. But I will cut off my hand before I'll ever reach for you again. Wipe it out of mind. We never touched, Abby."
45. "Theology, sir, is a fortress; no crack in a fortress may be accounted small."
46. "There is a prodigious danger in the seeking of loose spirits."
47. "If you think that I am one [a witch], then I say there are none.."
48. "Oh, Elizabeth, your justice would freeze beer!"
49. "Man, remember, until an hour before the devil fell, God thought him beautiful in Heaven."
50. "We must all love each other now, Goody Proctor."
51. "A person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between."
52. "Is the accuser always holy now? Were they born this morning as clean as God's fingers? I'll tell you what's walking in Salem—vengeance is walking in Salem."
53. "Mr. Parris, you are a brainless man!"
54. "I say—I say—God is dead!"
55. "Tonight, when I open my door to leave my house—a dagger clattered to the ground...There is danger for me."
56. "A fire, a fire is burning! I hear the boots of Lucifer, I see his filthy face! And it is my face, and yours, Danforth! For them that quail to bring men out of ignorance, as I have quailed, and as you quail now when you know in all your black hearts that this is fraud—God damns our kind especially, and we will burn, we will burn together!"
57. "Postponement now speaks a floundering on my part; reprieve or pardon must cast doubt upon the guild of them that died till now. While I speak God's law, I will not crack its voice with whimpering. If retaliation is your fear, know this—I should hang ten thousand that dared to rise against the law."
58. "Spite only keeps me silent. It is hard to give a lie to dogs."
59. "For if he [Proctor] is taken I count myself his murderer."
60. "Because it is my name! Because I cannot have another in my life! Because I lie and sign myself to lies! Because I am not worth the dust on the feet of them that hanged! How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul; leave me my name."
61. "He [Proctor] have his goodness now. God forbid I take it from him."

41. c
42. f
43. d
44. g
45. c
46. e
47. d
48. g
49. c
50. h
51. b
52. g
53. b
54. g
55. a
56. g
57. b
58. g
59. c
60. g
61. d

1. What explanation does Cheever give for Parris's "mad look"?
a. Parris is at his wits' end wondering what to do with Abigail.
b. The devil has run rampant in Salem Parris' parish.
c. Parris is under a spell.
d. He thinks it is caused by the cows.
2. What did Abigail do?
a. She stole money from Parris and disappeared.
b. She killed herself.
c. She begged for everyone's forgiveness.
d. She confessed that she and the other girls had been lying.
3. Identify the speaker: "You cannot hang this sort. There is danger for me."
a. Proctor
b. Danforth
c. Hale
d. Parris
4. Explain Danforth's reason that a pardon would not be a good idea?
a. If he would pardon the remaining accused, the people who had been hanged would have died in vain.
b. Rather than admit that the court could have been wrong and therefore admit the others may have been hanged unjustly, he thought it better to continue hanging people so all accused would get the same treatment from the court.
c. The citizens would lose respect for the court and anarchy would prevail.
d. A & B.
5. Why has Hale come back to Salem?
a. To free the unjustly jailed.
b. To encourage the accused to confess and save their lives.
c. To discredit the girls.
d. All of the above.
6. What does Hale want Elizabeth to do?
a. Confess to save her baby
b. Repent
c. Convince Proctor to confess
d. Forgive Abigail
7. What happens to Giles?
a. Giles was pressed to death during questioning.
b. He was released.
c. He was hanged.
d. He escaped and went to live in another village.


8. What "confession" did Elizabeth make to John?
a. She has been involved with witchcraft.
b. She also had an affair.
c. She secretly hoped Abigail would be killed by an angry mob.
d. She feels she is also responsible for his affair with Abigail.
9. What did Proctor do after he signed the confession?
a. He collapsed, a broken man.
b. He tore it up.
c. He begged Elizabeth to forgive him.
d. Both A & C.

1. d
2. a
3. d
4. d
5. b
6. c
7. a
8. d
9. b

1. Why do Giles and Frances want to see Danforth?
a. They intend to beat him to his senses.
b. They want to explain their roles in the witchcraft scheme.
c. They want to persuade the judge that their wives are good women.
d. They want to explain how Parris is at fault.
2. What is Parris' argument against Proctor?
a. Parris says that Proctor is trying to overthrow the court.
b. Parris says that Proctor is biased because of his position between Abigail and Elizabeth.
c. Parris says that Proctor is just getting even with him.
d. Both B & C
3. What does Mary tell Danforth?
a. Abigail is not evil; she is just in love with Proctor.
b. The girls have been lying.
c. Tituba was responsible for their actions in the woods.
d. Abigail gave Elizabeth the doll.
4. Why did Danforth grant Elizabeth extra time?
a. He didn't blame her for being jealous of Abigail.
b. She was trying to convince John to confess.
c. She said she was pregnant.
d. He almost believe Mary's story.
5. What did the paper that ninety-one people signed say?
a. The community wanted Parris removed from service as their minister.
b. Rebecca, Elizabeth, and Martha were all good, upstanding, God-loving citizens.
c. John and Elizabeth should be released.
d. All of the above.
6. What quote did Proctor use to help Mary remain brave?
a. "Truth is always best."
b. "God helps those who help themselves."
c. "Do that which is good, and no harm will come to thee."
d. The twenty-third Psalm
7. Of what does Giles accuse Putnam?
a. He accuses him of killing his neighbors for their land?
b. He accuses him of being in service to the devil.
c. He accuses him of taking advantage of the girls.
d. He accuses him of being a hypocrite.



8. What is Hale's problem as Proctor and his friends present evidence to Danforth?
a. He worries about his own safety from the girls' accusations.
b. He sees that he has been a failure at removing witchcraft from Salem.
c. He thinks his reputation will be hurt.
d. He begins to realize that the people who have been accused and sentenced so far could very well have been innocent.
9. Hathorne thinks of a test for Mary. What is it?
a. He asks her to recite the Ten Commandments.
b. He asks her to faint.
c. He asks her to fly around the room.
d. He asks her to stick a pin in her poppet.
10. When asked why Abigail was released from her service, what did Elizabeth respond?
a. She was dissatisfied with Abigail.
b. She, in her sickness, thought Abigail and John fancied each other.
c. John was not a lecher.
d. All of the above.
11. What do the girls do to Mary?
a. They glare at her.
b. They threaten her, saying she will regret her wrongful accusations about them for the rest of her life.
c. They pretend that her spirit is coming to get them.
d. They pretend the devil is in the room.
12. What happens to Proctor?
a. He is jailed for being a lecher.
b. He is jailed for lying to the court.
c. He is jailed for adultery.
d. He is jailed for his contempt of the court and his suspicious activities.

1. c
2. a
3. b
4. c
5. b
6. c
7. a
8. d
9. b
10. d
11. c
12. d

Where does Elizabeth want John to go, and what does she want him to do there?
a. She wants him to go apologize to Abigail.
b. She wants him to go help Parris with Betty.
c. She wants him to go into Salem to tell the authorities that the girls are lying.
d. She wants him to go convince Tituba to make the girls tell the truth.
2. What is John's response to her prodding?
a. He is reluctant to go.
b. He goes right away.
c. He ignores her.
d. He tells her to mind her own business.
3. What gift did Mary give Elizabeth?
a. A Bible
b. A doll
c. A basket of flowers
d. Both a & b
4. What was the "evidence" against Sarah Good?
a. She confessed to witchcraft.
b. She mumbled after begging for cider and bread.
c. She could not recite the commandments in court.
d. All of the above.
5. Why doesn't Proctor want Mary to go back to court?
a. If she goes back, that makes him further involved.
b. He believes that the accusations are false and the girls are frauds.
c. It isn't a just court in Proctor's eyes.
d. All of the above.
6. Why does Elizabeth think Abigail wants to kill her?
a. She is sick and a little paranoid.
b. She believes that Abby wants to take her place as John's wife.
c. She believes Abby is bewitched and will try to destroy anything good.
d. Both a & b
7. Why did Hale come to Proctor's house?
a. He wanted to find out why Parris was so bitter.
b. He wanted to question them prior to seeing them in court.
c. He wanted to find out if the rumor about John and Abby was true.
d. All of the above.
8. What things are "suspicious" about Proctor and his family?
a. Proctor does not go to church regularly.
b. The youngest son has not been baptized.
c. He could not remember all of the commandments.
d. All of the above.
9. Hale asks Elizabeth if she believes in witches. What is her reply?
a. If she is accused of being a witch, she cannot believe in witches.
b. If the Bible says that witches exist, she cannot dispute the Bible.
c. She does not believe the girls are telling the truth.
d. Both a & b
10. On what charge(s) was Rebecca Nurse arrested?
a. The murder of Goody Putnam's babies.
b. Impious conduct.
c. Conduct unbefitting a Puritan woman.
d. Inability to say the Ten Commandments from memory.
11. Why does Cheever come to the Proctor house?
a. He comes to question John.
b. He comes to arrest Elizabeth.
c. He comes to talk with John about what to do about Parris.
d. He comes to ask John's opinion about whether the girls are lying.
12. What is the deciding factor in Elizabeth's arrest?
a. Her inability to recite the Ten Commandments.
b. Her possession of the doll with a needle in it.
c. The fact that she has not had her son baptized.
d. Abby's testimony
13. What will happen to Proctor if he tries to discredit Abby?
a. She will tell that they had an affair.
b. She will claim she has seen him with the devil.
c. She will bewitch Elizabeth.
d. She will end their affair.
14. Why doesn't Mary want to testify about the doll?
a. She doesn't want to get involved.
b. She is afraid of Abigail.
c. She is afraid of the devil.
d. She thinks she will look like a fool.

1. c
2. a
3. b
4. d
5. b
6. b
7. b
8. d
9. d
10. a
11. b
12. b
13. a
14. b

afflict

torment,frighten,harm through supernatural means

break charity

christians should be united by bonds of love or charity so to treat someone in an unloving way was to break charity

circle girls

betty parris, abigail williams,ann putnam, and other who were members of the "secret circle" said to be dancing in the woods and who were the first to acuse peopleof witchcraft

compact with the devil

to make a formal agreement with satan the usual terms are a persons soul in return for wealth power or other earthly gain

covenanted christians

puritan who was formally accepted as a memeber of a congregation the puritans considered convenanted christians more holy than those who were merely baptized

crucible

severe test; a vessel used for refining pure material for example gold under intense heat

crying out against

accusing a person of witch craft

the devil, the fiend, lucifer,satan

christian names for the supreme spirit of evil

the devils book

said to be a large book containign the signatures of those who have made a pact with satan

the devils mark

scar or blemish said to be found on the body of a person who has made a pact with the devil

familiar spirit

evil spirit or demon that serves a witch familiars were believed to take the shape of small animals such as cats dogs birds toads or mice

gallows hill

place were those convicted at salem were hanged also called wiches hill

goody

term used t o identify the mistress of a house hold similiar to the term mrs, short for goodywife

hysteria/mass hysteria

phenomenoen that overtook the town of salem in 1692 through the power of suggestion many people came to believe thetown was ovverun by witches also called the madness

licentious

lustful hiding impure thoughts words or deeds

mccarthyism

making an assumption based on little or no evidenc elike the charges senator joseph mccarthy made against communist in 1950

Quakers

membersof the society of friedns founded by george fox 1647 beleived an inward light can lead all to a personal experience with god

spectral evidence

testimony about what was said or done by an apparition or spector of an acuused person

theocracy

gov. in which authorities rule the state os gods representatives

traffick with spirits

to conjure up through spells or have communication with demons ghosts or other supernatural creatures

warden

court official in puritan times

witch

from the anglo-saxon word wicce meaning sorceceress a person said practice black magic

witch hunt

an intensive effort to expose disloyalty usually based on little or no evidence

witch craft

art ot practice of sorcery or magic

ipso facto

by that very fact

blasphemy

the act of speaking of something sacred irreverently

puritans 1611-1642

1611-1642
-kjv bible published 1611
-pilgrims on mayflower land on plymouth 1620
-roger conant finds salem 1626
-mbc created by royal charter 1629
first puritans arrive in northeastern us 1630
-puritan revolution 1642

puritans 1642-1692

-charles 2 in power puritan leader thrown from power
-mbc withdrawn 1684
-rev. cotton mather asked to cure 2 children believed posessed by witches 1688
-samuel parris ordained as minister 1689
-salem trials begin in feb. with first acusations and arrest trials and executions continue from june to spetember 1692

1692-1706

possed children begin to appear in nearby village of andover 54 accused of witch craft most never tried 1692
-gov. philips pardon all convited of witchery and release them 1693
-samuel parris leaves salem jurors and judges apologize 1697
-ann putnam apologizes for accusing residents of witch craft 1706

1706-1957

survivors of condemned witches granted compensation 1711
-excommunication with rebecca nurse is withdrawn 1712
-salem village becomes town of danvers 1752
-allacused of witches formally cleared 1957

More about puritans

the first puritans were called by that name because they had attempted to purify or reform the churchof england by stripping away ritual ceremonypomp and paraphenalia of the traditonal service reducing it to its simplest biblical terms

puritans

developed a lean spare somber form of religous worship

puritans

placed emphasis on the fate of sinners in the hands of an angry god and they spread the gloomy belief that men were fated at birth to be among the elect and saved or among the damned and doomed

puritans

believed god is the head of state and the bible is the law of the land

witch trials

salem massachusstes in early 1600's resulted in 20 men and two dogs dying mainly being hung

the crucible 1953

written by arthur miller a (communist) is historically inaccurate and based of of mccathism with mccarthy witch hunts of the 1950's it was written during the salem witch trials to make it okay to make fun

communism

a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.

...

parris believe children should be seen and not heard,his sermons surrond fire and brimstone and damnation

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dancing is illegal and abigail tell everyone that all they did was dance and try to conjure up dead spirits

...

in the forest it was mercy(ran around naked,susana,mary(by stander),betty, abigail(drunk blood to kill john proctors wife) they all danced

...

abigail is used to getting things her way and threatens the girls if they tell on her and what she really was doing in the forest, her parents were killed by indians and she was an orphan

...

john proctor and abigail had an affiar, elizabeth kicked her out,jp is not fully over her but wants to jp doesnt like parris are his sermons so we can infer he preches about adultery and infidelity things jp has done

...

parris is greedy believes his house should belong to him and not the church very materialisticalways concerned about worldly possesions

"We cannot looks to suspicion in this , the devil is precise the works ofhis presence are definite as stone"

miller says that quote twice because he wants to show how rev. parris only preches about firing stone

...

rev. hale=exorcist villages always call him to cast out witches

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in the begining of act 2 proctor places salt in elix=zabeths soup, this shows that if proctor is not pleased he fixes it himself in order to avoid conflict shows he has a passive aggresive characteristic

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elizabeth questioning proctor has merit shows that there is still animosity towards and him stepping out on their reationship

...

hard proof that was usedto determine if someone was a witch are not is if the could state their commandments of the bible

describe the theme of authority vs.dissent

There are many levels of authority within the world of the Crucible. Early on, the Reverend Parris is the sole authoritative voice in Salem, as the minister and a graduate of Harvard College. He is supplanted by the arrival of Reverend Hale, who derives his authority from books and learning, which are then further supplanted in turn by the courts and its officials. Meanwhile, individualists like Proctor and Giles Corey rankle under these layers of authority - Proctor had long rejected Parris's preachings, and Corey made the authority of the law work for him as a constant plaintiff. But being an outlier is seen as dangerous in this society. Indeed, dissent against official authority is akin to being an anarchist at best and an agent of Satan at worst. Proctor and Corey are the two most modern figures in the play for their willingness to push back against the extreme authority of the courts. For this, however, they also suffer greatly.

describe the theme of martyrdom

Miller addresses the question of whether a martyr must be a saint by having Proctor grapple with this very issue throughout the play. The early victims of the witch hunt are not seen as martyrs because even after death, they are considered undesired members of society. In contrast, the execution of Rebecca Nurse is widely recognized as one of martyrdom, because she has lived a conspicuously upright life and thus walks to the gallows without protest. Proctor sees himself as the borderline case - a respected member of society but far from sinless. It is only by recognizing that he need not be as perfect as Goody Nurse that Proctor finally finds "his goodness" as a moral man.

describe the theme of community vs. individual

Salem is a tight-knit community where there is no such thing as private business. Individual activities like church attendance or book reading or keeping poppets become admissible evidence in court. Miller speculates that the community of Salem sought to keep itself together by casting out undesirable individuals, and in so doing created the atmosphere necessary for the witch hunts. The court itself was an extension of this principle, desperately in search of external validity - Danforth cannot possibly exonerate some when others have already perished for the same crime. But for the accused, it is only the individual that matters. In the end, Proctor is left with nothing but his name and reputation.

describe the theme of naming names

By requiring the accused to name others in their confessions, a witch hunt like that in Salem or HUAC can take on the form of a pyramid scheme or chain letter. In other words, to avoid the effects of this curse, you must pass it on to five other people, and so forth. This "naming names" allowed the accusations to spread and spread, while also permitting the public airing of grievances and sins. As a member of the blacklist himself, Miller felt particularly strongly about the evil of fingering others to save oneself, and he expresses this idea by having several characters grapple with the requirement that they name names. Giles Corey is held in contempt - the charge that ultimately leads to his execution - for refusing to name the person who told him of Putnam's scheming, and Proctor balks at the court's intention to question the 91 people who signed his declaration of the good character of the accused. But it is at the climax that this theme truly comes to the fore, as Proctor would rather die than accuse more innocent people.

describe the theme of sin and guilt

Miller identifies the witch hunt as an opportunity for the repressed members of Salem society to publicly proclaim both their own sins and the sins of others. Guilt has been bottled up at home in this community, and the airing of sins and grievances is a relief to those previously without an outlet for confession. Guilt motivates not only the witch hunts themselves, but also the behavior of several principal characters. Proctor is haunted by remorse over his infidelity, while Reverend Hale works to undermine the court that he helped create as penance for his sins. The ultimate irony of the Salem witch hunts is not only that the sins of the trials quickly outpaced the original crime, but that there was no original crime to begin with. Indeed, the abstract concept of sin was made concrete through compounding avoidances of guilt.

describe them of self interest

Miller identifies the witch hunt as an opportunity for the repressed members of Salem society to publicly proclaim both their own sins and the sins of others. Guilt has been bottled up at home in this community, and the airing of sins and grievances is a relief to those previously without an outlet for confession. Guilt motivates not only the witch hunts themselves, but also the behavior of several principal characters. Proctor is haunted by remorse over his infidelity, while Reverend Hale works to undermine the court that he helped create as penance for his sins. The ultimate irony of the Salem witch hunts is not only that the sins of the trials quickly outpaced the original crime, but that there was no original crime to begin with. Indeed, the abstract concept of sin was made concrete through compounding avoidances of guilt.

1.The Crucible is famous as a political allegory, but what exactly is Miller trying to say? Who do you think is being most criticized in the contemporary analogy?

Miller was particularly offended by those who "named names" before HUAC, and he himself refused to do so. While the Crucible indeed villainized the prosecutors and Court - those in the parallel positions of Joe McCarthy and HUAC - the play martyrs Corey and Proctor for refusing to do so. At the expense of their own lives, Corey and Proctor refused to condemn others, and in Miller's eyes this is the only truly moral decision.

2.The Crucible features a significant reversal of social roles in the Salem community. Choose a character whose position of power is upended and analyze the development of their role in the town and in the narrative. Can you make any observations about gender in this process?

The witch trials greatly increased the power and agency of otherwise lowly women like Tituba and Abigail, while bringing down more respected community members like Rebecca Nurse and Elizabeth. The position of men remained more stable - they were always in charge, and even if some of them were executed for witchcraft they would always control the positions of highest authority.

3.What is the role of gossip in the trials? How does Miller use gossip to implicate the whole town in the events of the witch trials?

Clearly the trials are begun by the wagging of tongues after the girls are found in the woods, but gossip certainly has a more enduring role. Reputations in Salem are made or broken based on slander and rumor, and reputation was a man's only defense against accusation - and even that often failed to correct aspersions. But gossip also proves to be a destructive force even in the hands of the good and unwitting, taking on a life of its own - Giles Corey, for instance, condemns his own wife simply by a slip of the tongue.

4.Miller makes some significant changes to the historical events for the play - most noticeably, he raises Abigail's age from 11 to 19, and invents an affair between her and Proctor. What purpose does this serve?

The affair is a dramatic device. It provides motive for Abigail's accusation of Elizabeth, and complicates the relationship between the Proctors. By raising Abigail's age and giving her motives of revenge, Miller can complicate the characterization of what would otherwise be a tale-telling little girl, without compromising her villainy.

5.Clearly, Proctor is the protagonist of the play, dominating three of the four acts. What begins as an ensemble rendering of the town's drama ends in an examination of a decision by one man, the focus gradually narrowed over the course of the play. How does Miller make this 17th century farmer into a character capable of holding our interest and sympathies for two hours?

Proctor is developed as a "modern" figure in the play. He is resistant to authority, rebelling against both the church and the state. He sees through humbug and shouts it down. Moreover, he has a complicated relationship with his wife, and is flawed but in an understandable way. He is independent minded, and struggles against the conformity of Salem that is so like 1950s America. In short, he's like every other hero rebel - the same man in so many movies in stories, just realized this time in 17th century Salem.

6.What started the Salem witch trials? In their contemporary parallel of the red scare, we know that there really were Communists. But in 17th century Salem, there was no true witchcraft. So how did this thing start, and what does Miller have to say about its origins?

A major point of the play is that the witch trials were not truly started by any event or scandal - the discovery of the girls dancing in the woods was merely a tipping point, not the true origin. Miller is steadfast in his belief that the social structure of Salem is what caused the witch hunt and allowed it to accelerate. If it hadn't been Betty Paris falling sick after dancing in the woods, it would have been something else.

7.Act One is punctuated by prose passages in which Miller details the background of Salem and the characters. However, this background mixes facts from the historical record with the changes Miller made for dramatic reasons. What do you think of this?

Because the prose passages are contained within a fictionalized dramatic work, a reader should be aware that the passages are subject to the limitations of the form. However, Miller speaks with the voice of a historian in these passages, not with the voice of a playwright, and gives no indication that what he says is less than historical fact. Indeed, it is a slightly worrisome idea - a play about a man who died for the truth is so free with its own truths.

8.What is the function of Reverend Hale in the narrative?

Reverend Hale is an interesting and well-developed minor character. He serves the dramatic function of an outsider, aiding in exposition in the first act even as his presence catalyzes the witch trials. But in the third act, he begins to question the trials, and by the fourth act has renounced them completely and is actively working against them. Hale shows that the ministry and the courts need not all be evil, but that it is possible to realize the error of one's own ways and work to fix their effects.

9.Mary Warren is a bit of a cipher - we see her only as a pawn of Abigail, and then of Proctor, and then again of Abigail. Do we learn anything about the "real" Mary Warren?

Mary Warren is a particularly undeveloped character in the narrative, who functions largely as a plot device. We know that she is a weak-willed and terrified girl, who is easily manipulated by people stronger than herself. Abigail and Proctor are the ones who manipulate her, both threatening her with violence and vengeance, which draws a lucid connection between those two. Mary wants to be good, but she lacks the ability to see clearly where this good choice lies.

10.Are the judges evil? Be sure to define what you mean by "evil" in your answer.

This is a deceptively simple question. Miller believed that the judges in the witch trials were purely evil, and has stated that if he were to rewrite the play, he would make them less human and more obviously and thoroughly evil. But is evil a function of the will, or a failure of reason? These men did not set out to do evil - they legitimately saw themselves as doing God's work. Is it evil to be wrong? Arguably, the Putnams are the most evil characters in Miller's interpretation of the events, as they both support the trials and clearly are aware of the falsity of the charges

In "The Crucible" what is the significance of the behind the scenes discussion between Hathorne, Danforth, and the Coreys?

This background sequence, which can be found at the beginning of act three, relays important information about the Corey family. We learn more information about Martha's arrest, and that Giles is very upset about it. He comes in, figurative guns blazing, ready to take down the courts to save his wife. And indeed, when Giles walks in, they are in the middle of accusing her of reading fortunes, a charge unrelated to the pig one upon which she was arrested, so who knows what else they are going to bring up.

This conversation is also significant because it reveals the hard-hearted nature of the courts, and their willingness to arrest anyone who causes a disturbance of any kind. As soon as Giles breaks in, Hathorne demands, "Arrest him your excellency," and all chaos erupts. The courts don't even pause before deciding that he must be arrested. He shouts out some pretty significant charges, that "Thomas Putnam is killing his neighbors for their land," and they immediately turn on Giles, not Thomas. This shows that the courts are predisposed to favor anyone who supports their already-made arrests, and to automatically discredit anyone who is trying to prove truth. It reveals the snap judgments and prejudiced nature of the judges themselves.

How do Proctor, Francis and Giles plan to use Mary Warren's testimony to prove that "heaven is not speaking through the children"?

All the events in The Crucible hinge on the testimony of this group of girls--girls we know are play-acting before the court in order to spare themselves punishment as well as take revenge on members of the town (and especially Elizabeth Proctor). They know the truth, as do John Proctor, Francis Nurse, Giles Corey, and even, probably, Rev. Parris. The court proceedings and the calling-out have gone too far when Elizabeth, Rebecca Nurse, and Martha Corey have been arrested. It's the final straw for John, and he presses his serving girl Mary Warren to admit they've all been play-acting before the court. Their ringleader, of course, is Abigail Williams. The three husbands intend to use Mary Warren's admission to convince the court that the girls have been putting on a show more than calling out any real acts of witchcraft. If she admits to her own wrongdoing, the hope is that the court will believe her and know the rest of the girls have been doing the same.

To her credit, and despite some faltering, Mary tries to make things right. It doesn't work, of course, as the drama continues and is now directed at her. Rev. Hale see through the charade and leaves the court and town in disgust. This is the final moment of opposition to the court until Hale appears again at the end in one last attempt to make Judge Hathorn see reason--an attempt which also ends in failure.

Who is the Protagonist of Act I

John Proctor

Who is the Antagonist of Act I

Abigail Williams

A quote from Act I that is an example of symbolism

It's death, y'know, it's death drivin' into them, forked and hoofed.

A quote from Act I that shows a characters point of view

She's a bitter woman, a lying, cold, sniveling woman, and I will not work for such a woman!

Who are the main characters in Act II?

John Proctor and Elizabeth Proctor

What is the climax in Act II?

Is when they got the poppet because that symbolized Abigail

Give a quote from Act II showing figurative language

" I have not moved from there to there without I think to please you, and still an everlasting funeral marches around your heart."

What is a quote example of allusion in Act II?

"Abigail brings the other girls into the court and where she walks the crowd will part like the sea for Israel

What item is symbolic of Abigail in Act II?

poppet

What is ironic when John Proctor is reciting his Ten commandments to Rev. Hale in Act II?

When John Proctor cannot remember one of the ten Commandments , Elizabeth quietly says "adultery, John"

Which main characters are having a dialogue in Act III?

Abigail,Mary Warren, Danforth, John Proctor, Martha Corey

Give an example of Personification in Act III in quote form

In the vesty room of the salem meeting house,the room was described as being "solemn,even forbidding".

Give Mary Warren's example of a simile in Act III

When Mary Waren cries,"He wake me every night,his eyes were like coals and his fingers claw my neck..".

What is the theme of Act III?

Vengeance,Killing neighbors for their land, and witchcraft.

List a quote showing alliteration in Act III

Proctor confesses to the court that had an illicit relationship with Abigail and Danforth asks,"In what time? In what place?" Proctor reply,"In the proper place- Where My beasts are bedded".

Who is the dynamic character in Act IV?

Rev. Hale.

Why is this play an allegory?

The fact that the Crucible is a story with two levels of meaning-----one literal and another Symbolic.

Give a quote example of integrity

John Proctor screams "Because it is my name ! because i cannot have another in my life"!

What is the title of the play the Crucible symbolic of?

Symbol of this vessel that sits in the fire and holds molten metals or ore.

Who dies at the end of Act IV?

John Proctor because he did not lie.

Who gets away but should have hanged for a crime? What crimes were these?

Abigail-Adultery and Witchcraft.

Discuss the role that grudges and personal rivalries play in the witch trial hysteria.

The trials in The Crucible take place against the backdrop of a deeply religious and superstitious society, and most of the characters in the play seem to believe that rooting out witches from their community is God's work. However, there are plenty of simmering feuds and rivalries in the small town that have nothing to do with religion, and many Salem residents take advantage of the trials to express long-held grudges and exact revenge on their enemies. Abigail, the original source of the hysteria, has a grudge against Elizabeth Proctor because Elizabeth fired her after she discovered that Abigail was having an affair with her husband, John Proctor. As the ringleader of the girls whose "visions" prompt the witch craze, Abigail happily uses the situation to accuse Elizabeth and have her sent to jail. Meanwhile, Reverend Parris, a paranoid and insecure figure, begins the play with a precarious hold on his office, and the trials enable him to strengthen his position within the village by making scapegoats of people like Proctor who question his authority.

Among the minor characters, the wealthy, ambitious Thomas Putnam has a bitter grudge against Francis Nurse for a number of reasons: Nurse prevented Putnam's brother-in-law from being elected to the Salem ministry, and Nurse is also engaged in a bitter land dispute with one of Putnam's relatives. In the end, Rebecca, Francis's virtuous wife, is convicted of the supernatural murders of Ann Putnam's dead babies. Thus, the Putnams not only strike a blow against the Nurse family but also gain some measure of twisted satisfaction for the tragedy of seven stillbirths. This bizarre pursuit of "justice" typifies the way that many of the inhabitants approach the witch trials as an opportunity to gain ultimate satisfaction for simmering resentments by convincing themselves that their rivals are beyond wrong, that they are in league with the devil.

How do the witch trials empower individuals who were previously powerless?

Salem is a strict, hierarchical, and patriarchal society. The men of the town have all of the political power and their rule is buttressed not only by law but also by the supposed sanction of God. In this society, the lower rungs of the social ladder are occupied by young, unmarried girls like Abigail, Mary Warren, and Mercy. Powerless in daily life, these girls find a sudden source of power in their alleged possession by the devil and hysterical denunciations of their fellow townsfolk. Previously, the minister and the girls' parents were God's earthly representatives, but in the fervor of the witch trials, the girls are suddenly treated as though they have a direct connection to the divine. A mere accusation from one of Abigail's troop is enough to incarcerate and convict even important, influential citizens, and the girls soon become conscious of their newfound power. In Act II, for instance, Mary Warren defies Proctor's authority, which derives from his role as her employer, after she becomes an official of the court, and she even questions his right to give her orders at all.

Even the most despised and downtrodden inhabitant of Salem, the black slave Tituba suddenly finds herself similarly empowered. She can voice all of her hostility toward her master, Parris, and it is simply excused as "suggestions from the devil." At the same time, she can declare that she has seen "white people" with the devil, thus (for the first time in her life, probably) giving her power over the white community. As the fear of falling on the wrong side of God causes chaos during the brief period of the hysteria and trials, the social order of Salem is turned on its head.

3. How does John Proctor's great dilemma change during the course of the play?

Proctor, the play's tragic hero, has the conscience of an honest man, but he also has a secret flaw—his past affair with Abigail. Her sexual jealousy, accentuated by Proctor's termination of their affair, provides the spark for the witch trials; Proctor thus bears some responsibility for what occurs. He feels that the only way to stop Abigail and the girls from their lies is to confess his adultery. He refrains for a long time from confessing his sin, however, for the sake of his own good name and his wife's honor. Eventually, though, Proctor's attempts to reveal Abigail as a fraud without revealing the crucial information about their affair fail, and he makes a public confession of his sin. But by the time he comes clean, it is too late to stop the craze from running its course, and Proctor himself is arrested and accused of being a witch.

At this point, Proctor faces a new dilemma and wrestles with his conscience over whether to save himself from the gallows with a confession to a sin that he did not commit. The judges and Hale almost convince him to do so, but in the end, he cannot bring himself to sign his confession. Such an action would dishonor his fellow prisoners, who are steadfastly refusing to make false confessions; more important, he realizes that his own soul, his honor, and his honesty are worth more than a cowardly escape from the gallows. He dies and, in doing so, feels that he has finally purged his guilt for his failure to stop the trials when he had the chance. As his wife says, "he have his goodness now."

explain the motifs in the crucible

Accusations, Confessions, and Legal Proceedings

The witch trials are central to the action of The Crucible, and dramatic accusations and confessions fill the play even beyond the confines of the courtroom. In the first act, even before the hysteria begins, we see Parris accuse Abigail of dishonoring him, and he then makes a series of accusations against his parishioners. Giles Corey and Proctor respond in kind, and Putnam soon joins in, creating a chorus of indictments even before Hale arrives. The entire witch trial system thrives on accusations, the only way that witches can be identified, and confessions, which provide the proof of the justice of the court proceedings. Proctor attempts to break this cycle with a confession of his own, when he admits to the affair with Abigail, but this confession is trumped by the accusation of witchcraft against him, which in turn demands a confession. Proctor's courageous decision, at the close of the play, to die rather than confess to a sin that he did not commit, finally breaks the cycle. The court collapses shortly afterward, undone by the refusal of its victims to propagate lies.

explain the symbols in the crucible

The Witch Trials and McCarthyism

There is little symbolism within The Crucible, but, in its entirety, the play can be seen as symbolic of the paranoia about communism that pervaded America in the 1950s. Several parallels exist between the House Un-American Activities Committee's rooting out of suspected communists during this time and the seventeenth-century witch-hunt that Miller depicts in The Crucible, including the narrow-mindedness, excessive zeal, and disregard for the individuals that characterize the government's effort to stamp out a perceived social ill. Further, as with the alleged witches of Salem, suspected Communists were encouraged to confess their crimes and to "name names," identifying others sympathetic to their radical cause. Some have criticized Miller for oversimplifying matters, in that while there were (as far as we know) no actual witches in Salem, there were certainly Communists in 1950s America. However, one can argue that Miller's concern in The Crucible is not with whether the accused actually are witches, but rather with the unwillingness of the court officials to believe that they are not. In light of McCarthyist excesses, which wronged many innocents, this parallel was felt strongly in Miller's own time.

As the play begins why has reveredn parris sent for a doctor

hig baughter betty is sick in the bed, as if in a comma

what advice does the doctor send back

thet he can find no medical reason for her illness and he should look for an "unnatural cause"

what does reveredn parris question abigail about?

if her name in the village is "white"-meaning is her reputation good

what is parris main concern

his reputation as a minister and material possesion

what/who did parris see in the woods the night before

he saw abigail betty and other girls danncing in the woods running around naked with tituba sing barbados songs over fire.

what has elizabeth proctor said about abigial

...

Who are Reverend Parris, Betty, and Abigail? What is their relationship?

rev. parris is the minister of salem betty is his daughter an abigail is his neice

who is tituba, what is her relationship to the family

tituba is parris's slave from barbados

what is wrong with betty

metty is unconscious after bring caught by her father dancing in the woods with ohter girls from salem

why does parris suggest calling reverend hale

rev. parris thinks the devil has entered salem and turned the girls into witches

who are ann and thomas putnam what do the y suggest is betty's problems what is their motivation for suggeting this

the couple who lost all but one child ,annthe putnams believe that betty is being controlled by the devil and is suffering the same symptoms as their daughter ruth related to wichcraft

Who is Ruth? What is her relationship to the Putnams? What is wrong with her? How do the
Putnam's tie her problem to Betty's?

Ruth is the Putnams' daughter; she is the other girl who is unable to wake after doing black arts in the woods with Tituba.

Who is Mercy Lewis? What is her relationship to the Putnams

she is their servant

What does the conversation between Abigail, Mercy Lewis, Mary Warren, and Betty reveal about their recent activities?

the girls are making the idea of withccraft up to avoid getting punished for dancing in the woods

Who is John Proctor? What is his relationship to Mary Warren? What is his relationship to Abigail? How does he feel about his relationship with Abigail

John Proctor is a landowner and a farmer, who separates himself from the town. Mary Warren is the Proctors' servant; she replaced Abigail Williams, with whom he had an affair.

Who is Elizabeth Proctor? What does Abigail think of her? How might this affect the outcome of the play?

Elizabeth Proctor is John's wife. Abigail despises Elizabeth because she dismissed her and brought suspicion on her. Abigail targets Elizabeth because she wants to take her place in John's life.

Who is Giles Corey? Why is he introduced into the play?

Giles Corey is an illiterate farmer who is a friend of John Proctor. His wife, Martha, reads books at night, and he says he "can't pray."

Who is Rebecca Nurse? What is her role likely to be in the play?

Rebecca Nurse is an elder in the town, married to Francis Nurse, who says that the "witchcraft" is just the girls' foolishness. All of her children and grandchildren are all still alive.

Why is the issue of Parris's salary raised?

Rev. Parris required that he be given the deed to the minister's house; he is concerned with temporal, earthly things seemingly more than heavenly things.

What is the Putnams' grievance over land? What significance might this have in the play?

Thomas Putnam feels as if he was cheated out of land by his father and is always

What do the Puritans think of books other than the Bible? How do you learn about this in Act One?

Books other than the Bible are folly and possibly evil.

How does Hale confuse Tituba? What is the significance of their conversation?

Hale's questioning is loaded with biased questions - assuming Tituba's guilt as a witch - which confuses Tituba; Hale also is beating Tituba as he questions her.

What is the significance of the scene between Elizabeth and John Proctor? What does it reveal about their relationship and about each of their characters?

Elizabeth and John Proctor have a strained relationship and a "cold" home due to John's affair with Abigail. John has not forgiven himself.

What is the gift Mary Warren gives to Elizabeth?

Mary Warren gives Elizabeth a poppet, a rag doll.

What information does Mary provide about the trials? Why does John forbid her from attending?

Elizabeth's name has been mentioned in connection witchcraft. Mary Warren is an "official of the court." John forbids Mary from attending the trial because he knows that it's a sham because Abigail told him that she made the "witchcraft" up.

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