being able to withstand another person or a different groups then yours. This was a main attribute to end the religious wars in Europe because the Catholics thought that Catholicism was the only necessary choice for Christianity, not Protestants.
Effect of the Revolt of the Netherlands on the Spanish economy
Philip II tried to keep order in the Netherlands by keeping the country all Catholic. The Calvinists were angry and revolted because they wanted to practice their religion. Philip stopped the revolt by sending an army to stop the rioting. The army he sent was a lot of money so he had to tax everyone, which then started another revolt. Spain therefore becomes economically a week country.
Were the Calvinists in France that caused problems with Catholics in France. Their job of stopping the Catholics spreading their religion started many civil wars. Wanted freedom of religion in France.
Catherine de Medici
Was the Queen and wife of Henry II of France. She was a devoted catholic and when Henry died her son was the king. He was not old enough so she was in rule until it was his time to rule. She attached and stopped the Huguenots from rebelling. She advocated political stability over religious orthodoxy, and was known as a politique.
The War Of The Three Henrys
Was a civil war in France between the Henry Guise (leader of Ultra-Catholics), Henry III of Valois, And Henry Bourbon (Henry IV). Henry Guise took the city of Paris, threatening the Valois hold on the Nation. Henry III who was from Valois later formed an alliance with Henry Bourbon against the Ultra-Catholics. The alliance invited Guise to their palace and assassinated him. Then a crazy ultra-catholic monk killed Henry III leaving Henry Bourbon who was later Henry IV ruler of France.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
August 24, 1572, was a plain that was created by Catherine de Medici. It was to kill all Huguenot leaders that were at the marriage of Henry Navarre and Margret. This showed how much the Catholics and the Huguenots disliked each other.
was an extremely tiny catholic group that thought the mistreatment of the Huguenots was terrible. An example was the Saint Bartholomew's day massacre, which was a main reason of the Huguenots mistreatment.
The catholic league
was a catholic group and association in France that were not Politiques or Huguenots. They did not agree with the group's thoughts and they consisted of noblemen that were apart of large towns.
Edict Of Nantes (1598)-
was a law that was created by Henry of Navarre that allowed all Huguenots to be tolerated in France. He was later assassinated from this law because all the Catholics were now enemies of him after he passed it.
"One king, two faiths"
Was said by Henry IV because his rule in France was not with any religion. He just wanted to end all wars with the two clashing religions. He made his country tolerate with both of the religions, and was an enemy with Catherine de Medici.
(1556-1598) His Empire of Spain stretched from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Contained continental territories that included The Netherlands, Naples, and Milan. Known as the "King of Paper" from his daily intense schedule. He defended Christianity in Europe against the Ottoman Empire. Was the husband of Mary I of England so he could restore Catholicism, but when Elizabeth I was queen she rejected him since she was protestant.
The Battle of Lepanto (1571)
The Ottoman Empire fought the Spanish and Italians in a naval battle. Philips army consisted of 300 ships and 80,000 soldiers. Philips army was victorious over the Turks, and it ended all Turkish advances.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
The Spanish Armada consisted of more than 130 ships from both Spanish and Portugal. More advanced to fight the English, but the English ships were much faster, smaller, and maneuverable in the English channel then the Armada. The English artillery (guns) was faster to reload than the Armadas. They preventing the Armada from reaching the Netherlands, and they destroyed many ships that went off course.
In Greek it means "image breaking", it's the destruction and the breaking within a cultures own religious icons. The opponents of the iconoclasts meditate and worship the icons.
The Council of Blood
A military court that was established by the Duke of Alba that punished all participants from the rebellion in The Netherlands. The council acquired more than 9000 convictions and 1000 were convicted with the death penalty.
were traits from the teachings of the school of philosophers from Skeptikoi. In religion it means the uncertainness to believe basic religious principles such as immortality.
Michele de Montaigne
French Renaissance writer that is widely known today for making the essay as a genre in literature. He created the Essais (attempt), which is one of the most widely read literary essays today.
The Pacification of Ghent (1576)
The Spanish government allowed local autonomy in taxation, the main role of legislation in the states-general, and withdrawing Spanish forces from all the low countries in Europe. These rules that the government created aloud someone to achieve a settlement.
The Time of Troubles
The Russian crown plunged and fell in 1601, so the Time of Troubles started. It was a period in Russia that was all disruption. It started with the Death of Ivan the Terrible and ended with the Polish Invading Russia.
was a class of hereditary nobility that were landowners and had power in the government. They lost lots of power to the military class because Ivan the Terrible hated them because he thought they poisoned his mother. There power was lost, and they were all convicted and/or killed.
Was a Swedish commander during the 30 years war. He was a Lutheran, and wanted them to have more power then what the Holy Roman Empire was giving them. During the battle of Lutzen he was killed after he beat Albert van Wallenstein's (catholic) army. After his victory the peace of Prague was created with ended war between the Swedish and the Holy Roman Empire
Defenestration of Prague (1618)
The bohemian Calvinists insisted on having Fredrick V heir to the throne. They revolted and overthrow Ferdinand II of who was a catholic out of rule. The bohemian Calvinists did not want to hear the words from the catholic representatives so they threw them out the window, which then started the 30 years war.
The Battle of White Mountain
was a battle that was all started by the bohemian revolt in the first phase. Ferdinand II created a large army with Portugal, Spanish, and others and completely destroyed Fredrick V. Ferdinand acquired territories from Fredrick V and it stopped the revolts that ended the first phase.
Bohemian phase (1618-1625)
was started by the bohemian Calvinists by them revolting. They overthrew the imperial army of the Holy Roman Empire who was Ferdinand II and established Fredrick V as ruler. Ferdinand (catholic) who was outraged at compelled his forces with the Holy Roman Empire and fought the Bohemian Calvinists of Fredrick V at the battle of White Mountain. Ferdinand completely destroyed them and gained Fredrick's territories in Lower Palatinate. It was a war between the Catholics and the Protestants
Danish Phase (1625-1629)
The Hapsburgs was very powerful so the French, English, and Dutch created an alliance against them. The alliance was led by Christian IV, and Albert of Wallenstein who was a Catholic league Bohemian King destroyed Christian IV. Religion became less of a factor in war when Albert created the Edict of Restitution, which stated that all lands lost to Protestants were to be given back to the Roman Church, and all Lutherans and Catholics could practice there faiths
The Swedish Phase (1630-1635)
started when Gustavus Adolphus intervenes for the Lutherans to support their way of life when they were under complete control throughout the empire. The Swedish got support form Cardinal Richelieu of France because he wanted to weaken Habsburg power in Europe. Gustavus ended the domination of Hapsburgs in Germany when he allied with Brandenburg and Saxony into one huge army. He was able to win more battles and get the Hapsburg out of Germany. Eventually, Gustavus was killed in the Battle of Lutzen when he was severely injured and wounded. Near the end of the phase the French cause a conflict with the Protestants, which ends the 3rd phase and starts the 4th.
The French Phase (1635-1648)
started when the French and the Dutch all allied against the anti- Hapsburg forces. Cardinal Richelieu was outraged from this act that he declared war on Spain in 1635. Both French and Spain could not afford to have a war, so they inflicted damage upon themselves when they were fighting. Spain was the first to fall apart since they were broke, and revolts were started from high taxes. Spain tried to end the war by completely destroying the French army at the battle of Rocroi. The invasion failed by French troops holding out the Spanish. In the end of the phase, people were tired from all the fighting going on so the Treaty of Westphalia was created. The treaty ended the terrible 30 years war and outlined Europe for years to come.
The Edict of Restitution (1629
Was passed by Ferdinand II by Albert of Wallenstein which made all catholic lands that were lost to the protestants be given back. The imperial forces enforced the German states to Catholicism.
Albert von Wallenstein
was a general that was appointed by Ferdinand II. He was a catholic and pillaged many lands along the countryside of bohemia. He was apart of the 30 years war of the Danish phase and the imperial army.
Peace of Westphalia (1648)
The treaty was passed internationally by all the main powers of Europe to end the 30 years war. This treaty favored the Protestants because those lands, which were protestant, were helped while Spain who was catholic lost itself from being the superpower. This treaty tolerated the protestant religion in Europe and now the Protestants can coexist with the Catholics in a peaceful way.
was extremely powerful and dominant in France. His main goal was to suppress the power of the Holy Roman Empire and help the Germanic states in Europe. To obtain his goal, he allied with the Swedish and the Dutch. He contributed to the French phase by declaring war on the French.