Psychology: a journey CH3

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chapter 4- Quiz

Which of the following statements is true regarding the roles that heredity and the environment play in one's development?

- heredity gives each of us a variety of potentials and limitations
- One's potentials are affected by environmental influences, such as learning, nutrition, disease and culture
- one's development is a constant interaction btwn the forces of nature and nurture

the importance of heredity stems from the fact that it

sets the limits of development by providing a framework of potentials and limitations

Psychologists generally resolve the nature-nurture debate by agreeing that

heredity and environment are interacting and inseparable factors in development

The long, ladder-like chains of chemical molecules that act as a code for genetic information are known as

DNA

Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information are called

genes

Bruce has a dominant gene for brown eyes and a recessive gene for blue eyes. Bruce's eyes color would be

Brown

Heredity can have an effect on

-eye and skin color
-susceptibility to some diseases
-personality traits

Joey's mother was amazed by her two-year old son. He was a very friendly, agreeable child, who always seemed to be relaxed and in a good mood. Thomas and Chess would describe Joey as an ______ child.

easy

Sensitive periods in development are characterized by

relatively permanent changes

If a mother smokes heavily during pregnancy, it is more likely that the infant will be born

premature and underweight

A lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love is referred to as

deprivation

which of the following would NOT be part of an enriched environment for children?

limiting what a child can touch in order to present these sensations systematically

Jana is an easy baby who smiles and vocalizes frequently, which encourages her parents to smile and talk to her more. This, in turn, causes Jana to smile and interact more. This illustrates

reciprocal influences

The three factors combining to determine a person's developmental level at any stage of life are

heredity, environment, and the person's own behavior

a newborn infant during the first weeks following birth is called an....

neonate

the_______ reflex helps a baby find a bottle or breast

rooting

which of the following would provide your newborn with the best visual stimulation?

a human face pattern

proximodistal means...

from the center of the body to the extremeties

muscular control spreads in a pattern from head to toe, according to the

cephalocaudal principle

Children who were raise in overcrowded Romanian orphanages and got almost no attention from adults for the first year or two of their lives exhibited which of the following behaviors when adopted by American and Canadian families?

- exhibited poor attachment to their new parents
- did not like to be touched or make eye contact with others
- wandered off with strangers

which of the following is NOT one of the parenting styles identified by Baumrind?

proactive

As a parent, you want your daughter to grow up to be a mature, independent adult who will act responsibly and make good decisions. To accomplish this you should...

- combine love and encouragement with firm and consistent guidance
-explain your decisions
-respect your child's right while also expecting her to take less responsibility for her actions.

Antoine refers to reason with his children and discuss the limits he sets. His children tend to be very friendly, self-reliant, and socially responsible. According to the research on parenting styles, Antoine is exhibiting ___parenting

authoritative

fathers are more likely than mothers to

engage in usual play

In this culture, the father is a strong authority figure who demands obedience from the children at an early age so the family will note be shamed by the child's misbehavior. Punishment generally consists of spankings and teasing, while success, generosity, hospitality, thrift, conservatism, and educational achievement are highly valued by

Arab American Families

the normal order of language development in infancy is

crying, cooing, babbling, single word, telegraphic speech

Brett's speaking vocabulary includes more than 4000 words and he is able to understand more than twice that many. He is most likely

in first grade

exaggerated or musical voice inflections are characteristic of

parentese

when parents around the world use a short, sharp rhythm, they are

warning their bby

if a two year old says "water go".. and the parents with a correct structured grammar..the parent is..

seeking to clarify what was said and prompt the child to say more

which of the following is False concerning language conversational development?

a biological predisposition determines if we will speak English or Vietnamese, Spanish, or Russian

"...as soon as she puts the keys out of sight behind her back, Eric stops crying and becomes interested in something else. This story demonstrates Eric's lack of...

object permanence

The concept that mass, weight, and volume remain unchanged despite changes in the appearance of the objects is called...

conservation

Which of the following is the most appropriate way of stimulating intellectual development in children at the sensorimotor stage?

active play such as peekaboo

Recent research on infant cognition suggests that infant cognitive abilities emerge

before one year of age

Which of the following may explain why Piaget underestimated the abilities of infants?

limited physical skills were mistaken for limited cognitive skills

like Piaget, Vygotsky, believed that children

actively seek to discover new principles

Vygotsky realized that some task are just beyond a child's reach. However, children receiving sensitive guidance from skilled partners could make rapid progress. Interactions like this are most helpful when they take place within a child's

zone of proximal development

In the example of the moral dilema involving the druggist, which of the following responses would demonstrate the preconventional level?

Even if he steals the drug, his wife will probably die before he gets out of jail

Erikson believes that the major developmental task facing a child from one to three in the second state of development is

developing a sense of autonomy

Little Billy is constantly climbing, exploring, and trying to do things for himself. His parents try to restrict this exploring and also tend to ridicule his efforts when he makes a mess. According to Erikson, the actions of Billy's parents may cause Billy to feel

shame and doubt.

skills that require speed and rapid learning are referred to as

fluid abilities

studies suggest that the healthiest elderly individuals

exhibit gratitude and forgiveness

when Sidney misbehaves, his mother takes away his phone privileges or takes away his video game system. Sidney's mother is using the ________ discipline technique.

power assertion

Reasoning, recognition, and approval are examples of..

management techniques

Melissa is often described by her teacher as a model child or unusually good. However, she also tends to be somewhat insecure, anxious, and dependent on adults for approval. According to the research on child discipline techniques, Melissa's parents most likely used the __________ discipline technique.

withdrawal of love

which discipline technique is associated with the highest levels of self-esteem in children?

management technique

According to the author of your textbook, the general guidelines for using punishment include ...

- that spankings are most effective for children ages two-five years.
- that parents should separate their disapproval of the act from disapproval of the child
-that parents should reserve spankings for situations that pose and immediate danger to younger children

Threatening, accusing, bossing, and lecturing children are most characteristic of..

you-messages

Johnny's mother tells him that she has a headache and would like him to bounce his ball outside and not in the house. If he continues to bounce his ball in the house, mother will put away the ball. this would be a..

logical consequence

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