the period of Church history from 1308 to 1378 when the popes lived and ruled in Avignon, France instead of in Rome
The great Schism
two popes were chosen; divided europe; damaged church - people didn't knokw who to worship; ended with election of one new pope
The Conciliar Movement
An effort initiated to have the church ruled, not by the pope, but by everyone in the church, such as Bishops, Cardinals, etc.
The leader of the Czech religious reforms, and the spiritual founder of the Protestant reformation in the 1500's. He was convicted by the Council of Constance for heresy.
English theologian whose objections to Roman Catholic doctrine anticipated the Protestant Reformation (1328-1384)
The Modern Devotion
a religious movement of the Late Middle Ages. It came into advocation at the same time as Christian Humanism, a meshing of Humanism and Christianity.
Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
A theory of government that holds that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group.
The selling of official positions in the medieval Roman Catholic Church
Favoritism to relatives by those in power
an official not participation in benefices but receiving payment and privileges. On of the corruptions in the Catholic Church
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
written by Martin Luther and is widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. It is vitally important to understand that these theses were used for the intent of displaying Luther's displeasure with the Church's indulgences
This Dominican monk was chosen to advertise indulgences in 1517, and did so using extreme methods so that many people bought them. This caught Luther's attention, and was a factor that led to the 95 Theses.
Issued by Leo X ordering Martin Luther's works be burned and Luther recant or be excommunicated. Luther publicly burns the letter.
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor
Luther's three solas
Sola sciptura - Bible is sole source of Christian doctrine.
Sola Fide: Faith alone saves, good works not essential
Sola Gratia: Everyone is equal in gods eyes, no popes, priests, etc are more special
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
The Peasants' War
A rebellion in 1525 of peasants against the nobility that greatly strengthened the authority of lay rulers and greatly decreased the popular appeal of the Reformation. Luther wanted to prevent rebellion, but originally sided with the peasants. They were eventually crushed.
Diet of Speyer
An assembly of German leaders and HRE representatives deciding that each German territory could enforce the Edict of Worms (Luther is an outlaw) as the chose. This gave the German territories sovereignty in religious matters, and helped the Reformation and Lutheranism spread.
Diet of Augsburg
peace agreement begun in 1552 and confirmed in writing in 1555 that the princes and free cities of Germany could choose to remain Catholic or become Lutheran. The townspeople were given no choice but to follow the orders of those in power in each area. This led to religious divisions in Germany that still exist today.
Lutheran Confession of Augsburg
A statement of Protestant beliefs.
protestant alliance formed by Lutherans against the Holy Roman Empire
Peace of Augsburg
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
Leader of Swiss Reformation. Agreed to disagree with Luther about communion. He thought it was only a symbol, and that it wasn't Christ's body or blood untill it touched your mouth, only symbolic. Found on the battlefield of the Swiss Civil War wounded and the Lutherans found him, cut him up into little pieces, then burn them and scattered the ashes over the land. Luther said Zwingli got what he deserved.
Burned alive in 1553 by the protestants in Geneva for being a heretic.
(theology) being determined in advance (going to heaven/hell)
Institutes of Christian Religion
This was the work by John Calvin that described to the world the ideology of John Calvin
Members of a radical movement of the 16th-century Reformation that viewed baptism solely as an external witness to a believer's conscious profession of faith, rejected infant baptism, and believed in the separation of church from state, in the shunning of nonbelievers, and in simplicity of life.
It was a city in northwestern Germany that was taken in control by the anabaptists in February 1534. It became "New Jerusalem". Later, Catholics and Protestants wiped out the Anabaptists from the city.