AP US History Chapter 8

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2nd Continental Congress (Chapter 8)

The _________________ met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. Three delegatres added to the Congress were Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock. The Congress took on governmental duties and united all the colonies for the war effort. They selected George Washington as commender of the army. They encouraged the colonies to set themselves up as states. On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Congress ended March 1, 1781 when a Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over.

George Washington (Chapter 8)

________________ was commander of the Continental Army, defeated Cornwallis at the Battle Yorktown, and 1st president of the U.S.A.

Ethan Allen (Chapter 8)

________ was the leader of the Green Mountain Boys fought with American troops in the Revolutionary War. On May 10, 1775, the Green Mountain Boys seized Ft. Ticonderoga in New York from the British, helping lead to the victory at Saratoga.

Benedict Arnold (Chapter 8)

________________ had been a Colonel in the Connecticut militia at the outbreak of the Revolution and soon became a General in the Continental Army. He won key victories for the colonies in the battles in upstate New York in 1777, and was instrumental in General Gates victory over the British at Saratoga. After becoming Commander of Philadelphia in 1778, he went heavily into debt, and in 1780, he was caught plotting to surrender the key Hudson River fortress of West Point to the British in exchange for a commission in the royal army. He is the most famous traitor in American history.

Ticonderoga & Crown Point (Chapter 8)

In May 1775, small American force under Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold captured British garrisons; they aquired a large store of gunpowder/artillery from ______________ which helped with Bunker Hill.

Bunker Hill (Chapter 8)

________________ took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British claimed victory on account of the depletion of American supplies, yet the Americans gained confidence. It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Olive Branch Petition (Chapter 8)

On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies. This offer was known as the _____________.

Hessians (Chapter 8)

_____________ were German mercenaries that were hired by the British for putting down the rebellion of the colonies. The hiring of these men showed to the colonists that the British had only military action in mind as a solution to the current problems.

Invasion of Canada (Chapter 8)

During the ______________, U.S. General Richard Montgomery forced the British to evacuate Montreal in 1775. A second force led by Benedict Arnold invaded the land by combining an attack on Quebec; however, it was a failure in that Montgomery was killed, Benedict was shot, and one-third of the colonial troops were killed or captured.

Richard Montgomery (Chapter 8)

______________ was a formerly British General, he then led the colonists. He led a successful attack into Montreal, then on to Quebec. Montgomery's attack on Quebec failed and he was killed, thus, the whole invasion into Canada failed.

Evacuation Day (Chapter 8)

___________ occurred on March 17, 1776, the day the British troops left (evacuated) Boston.

Thomas Paine (Chapter 8)

___________ was a Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man.

Common Sense (Chapter 8)

___________ was a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain.

Citizen Virtue (Chapter 8)

____________ is a component many colonists in America felt was fundamental to any successful republican government.

Collective Good (Chapter 8)

A _____________ is something of value (money, a tax write-off, prestige, clean air, and so on) that cannot be withheld from a group member.

Natural Aristocracy (Chapter 8)

A __________________ is a aristocracy which arises out of work and competition rather than birth, education, or special privilege.

Leveling (Chapter 8)

________________ is the policy in which government uses price controls to balance the economic effects of farm surpluses or shortages.

Richard Henry Lee (Chapter 8)

_______________ was a member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.

Thomas Jefferson (Chapter 8)

________________ was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

Declaration of Independence (Chapter 8)

The __________________ was approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.

Natural Rights (Chapter 8)

_____________ was the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property.

Bill of Indictment (Chapter 8)

The _________________ was a declaration of the charges against an accused person that is presented to a grand jury to determine whether enough evidence exists for an indictment.

Patriots (Chapter 8)

_____________ were American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.

Declaration of the Rights of Man (Chapter 8)

The ____________________ was a statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.

Abigail Adams (Chapter 8)

_____________ was the wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.

Anarchy (Chapter 8)

______________ is a state of lawlessness and disorder (usually resulting from a failure of government).

Colonel Tye (Chapter 8)

_______________ was a notorious black loyalist who served under Lord Dunmore and conducted guerilla raids in New Jersey for years. Interracial band of Loyalists plundered villages, spiked cannons to make them incapable of firing, and kidnapped Patriot officers.

United Empire Loyalists (Chapter 8)

________________ were American colonists loyal to Great Britain who relocated to Canada after the American Revolution.

William Franklin (Chapter 8)

______________ was the royal governor of New Jersey. Ben Franklin's son. He was very loyal to the king. Had an English wife.

Battle of Long Island (Chapter 8)

During the _________________, George Washington and his army were badly beaten on August 27, 1776. Sorely outnumbered and surrounded at Brooklyn Heights, the 9,500 troops that survived retreated under cover of night across the East River to Manhattan.

William Howe (Chapter 8)

______________ was a English General who commanded the English forces at Bunker Hill. Howe did not relish the rigors of winter campaigning, and he found more agreeable the bedtime company of his mistress. At a time when it seemed obvious that he should join the forces in New York, he joined the main British army for an attack on Philadelphia.

Trenton (Chapter 8)

On Christmas night in _______________, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.

John Burgoyne (Chapter 8)

______________ was a British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777.

Barry St. Leger (Chapter 8)

___________ was a British officer in the American Revolutionary War. He led a British advance into New York's Mohawk Valley in the summer of 1777. Hoping to join the British army of General John Burgoyne at Albany, St. Leger was halted by American militia in Fort Stanwix. His forces were nearly destroyed while repelling an American relief unit at Oriskany, and the approach of additional American troops forced St. Leger to retreat to Canada.

Saratoga (Chapter 8)

______________ was a battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.

Horatio Gates (Chapter 8)

Burgoyne was forced to surrender his command to ______________, an American general, on October 17, 1777 at the battle of Saratoga.

Freedom of the Seas (Chapter 8)

__________ was the right of merchant ships to travel freely in international waters, and very important to international commerce for the isolated United States.

Novus Ordo Seclorum (Chapter 8)

______________ means new order of the ages.

1778 Treaty of Alliance (Chapter 8)

The _______________ was a treaty that Benjamin franklin negotiated with France in which required France to help in the Revolutionary War.

Armed Neutrality (Chapter 8)

____________ was the term for the alliance of Catherine the Great of Russia and other European powers who did not declare war but assumed a hostile neutrality toward Britain.

Comte de Rochambeau (Chapter 8)

______________ commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York.

West Point (Chapter 8)

Hudson River stronghold offered to the British by Benedict Arnold for money and a military commission. This deal was known as ____________.

King's Mountain (Chapter 8)

_______________ was a battle in NC where Patriots defeated Loyalist militia; many neutral citizens swung over to patriot side and there was increased dislike of the British.

Carolina Campaign (Chapter 8)

The ______________ in 1778 was a campaign of the Revolution, British-backed loyalists in the South were defeated by Nathaniel Greene.

Nathaniel Greene (Chapter 8)

____________ was a Quaker-raised American general who employed tactics of fighting and then drawing back to recover, then attacking again. Defeated Cornwallis by thus "fighting Quaker".

George Rogers Clark (Chapter 8)

___________ was the leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America.

John Paul Jones (Chapter 8)

___________ was the commander of one of America's ships; daring, hard-fighting young Scotsman; helped to destroy British merchant ships in 1777; brought war into the water of the British seas.

Privateers (Chapter 8)

_____________ were "Legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping.

Lord Cornwallis (Chapter 8)

__________ was the commander of British troops in the South, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Yorktown.

Admiral de Grasse (Chapter 8)

____________ was the French naval commander and helped the troops in the Navy trap and cut off Cornwallis.

Yorktown (Chapter 8)

In 1781 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered in _____________ after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops.

John Jay (Chapter 8)

_____________ was a United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829).

Treaty of paris 1783 (Chapter 8)

The __________________ ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.

George Bancroft (Chapter 8)

_______________ was the "Father of American History" who helped found the Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845 as secretary of the navy; published a superpatriotic history of the US to 1789 that grew out of vast research in Europe and America.

Progressive Historians (Chapter 8)

The _________________ were a group added to the imperial school's interpretation by focusing on the struggles for power among the colonists themselves, struggles that had made use of the tensions aroused by Britain's colonial policies. Stressing economic and social conflicts that had manifested themselves in politics, the progressives saw the war, and the period that followed, as an era in which the crucial questions had been not only that of home rule, but also that of "who would rule at home." Although they failed to agree on the meaning of the outcome of the latter struggle, the progressive historians forced Americans to realize that their Revolution had touched the entire fabric of society.

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