AP US History Chapter 9

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Society of Cincinnati (Chapter 9)

The ___________________ established by former officers of the Revolutionary war as a sort of aristocracy in which traditionalism and social status was important. Thomas Jefferson and other civilians thought that this movement threatened the newly formed republic and feared it could turn into an aristocracy so they worked to disband it. This was showed that nothing would stand in the way of a democratic government. This was crucial as this is the point when most revolutions fail, but the determination from Jefferson ceased this early threat.

Land Ordinance of 1785 (Chapter 9)

The _____________ was a major success of the Articles of Confederation. It provided for the orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.

Fundamental Law (Chapter 9)

___________ was the basic legal and political document of a state; it prescribes the rules through which government operates.

Republican Motherhood (Chapter 9)

___________ was the idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children.

The Federalist (Chapter 9)

_______________ was a group of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.

Government By Supplication (Chapter 9)

_______________________ refers to the government when Congress was lucky if in any year it received one-fourth of its requests.

Northwest Ordinance (Chapter 9)

The __________________ was enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states.

Constitutional Convention (Chapter 9)

The _______________ was a meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.

Daniel Shays (Chapter 9)

____________ was the head of Shay's Rebellion; he and several other angry farmers violently protested against debtor's jail; eventually crushed; aided in the creation of constitution because land owners now wanted to preserve what was theirs from "mobocracy".

Shays's Rebellion (Chapter 9)

_____________ was led by Daniel Shays in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.

Demigods (Chapter 9)

____________ were the people at the Philadelphia convention. most notable, Washington the chairman. Benjamin Franklin. James Madison ("Father of the Constitution"), Alexander Hamilton, who advocated for strong central government.

Alexander Hamilton (Chapter 9)

_______________ emerged as a major political figure during the debate over the Constitution, as the outspoken leader of the Federalists and one of the authors of the Federalist Papers. Later, as secretary of treasury under Washington, he spearheaded the government's Federalist initiatives, most notably through the creation of the Bank of the United States.

Sovereignty (Chapter 9)

___________ is the ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.

Quorum (Chapter 9)

__________ is a gathering of the minimal number of members of an organization to conduct business.

Great Compromise (Chapter 9)

The ________________ was a agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).

Electoral College (Chapter 9)

The _______________ is a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president.

Three-Fifths Compromise (Chapter 9)

The ____________________ between northern and southern states at the Constitutional Convention said that three-fifths of the slave population would be counted for determining direct taxation and representation in the House of Representatives.

Federalists (Chapter 9)

_______________ were supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.

Anti-Federalists (Chapter 9)

__________________ opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the Constitution in several states. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party.

Virginia Plan (Chapter 9)

The _____________ was presented by Virginia delegate James Madison, which said that states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population.

Charles Beard (Chapter 9)

____________ was a historian who argued that the Founders were largely motivated by the economic advantage of their class in writing the Constitution.

New Jersey Plan (Chapter 9)

The ____________ was the opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.

Northwest Territory (Chapter 9)

The __________________ was a vast territory of land that included present-day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin; was politically organized by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.

King Congress (Chapter 9)

______________ refers to the time when States refused to pay anything and complained about the tyranny of congress. Whether Congress would be under the control of judiciary or executve branch or Congress controlled by both.

Mobocracy (Chapter 9)

_____________ is to be ruled by a mob. An example of people who used this method would be the American colonists. When England would impose taxes and acts, such as the Stamp Act, the colonists would become angered and protest it by forming mobs and doing such things as ransacking houses and stealing the money of stamp agents. The Stamp Act was eventually nullified because all the stamp agents had been forced to resign leaving no one to uphold it.

Annapolis Convention (Chapter 9)

The ______________ was held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention.

James Madison (Chapter 9)

_____________ was the fourth President of the United States. A member of the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention, he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers, which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.

Bill of Rights (Chapter 9)

The _____________ was the first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.

Virginia Statute of Religious Freedom (Chapter 9)

The ___________ was written by Thomas Jefferson to enforce the separation of church and state. It said that no man compelled to support any church, and that matters of religion were based on opinion. It showed the idea of freedom for all coming into effect.

Articles of Confederation (Chapter 9)

The ________________ was the nations first constitution, and was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.

Nationalists (Chapter 9)

________________ believed in uniting people who share a common history and culture.

Bicameral (Chapter 9)

A ___________ is a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses.

Unicameral (Chapter 9)

A ____________ is a one-house legislature.

Consensus Historians (Chapter 9)

______________ wanted to acheive nationalism by agreeing on points in history.

Extensive Republic (Chapter 9)

______________ was Madison's term used to describe a federal republic governing a large territory.

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