Specialized cells to conduct water, key cells in xylem. a major adaptation that helps transfer nutrients
(botany) tissue that conducts synthesized food substances (e.g., from leaves) to parts where needed a major adaptation that helps transfer nutrients
Reduced gametophyte generation, tracheids, seeds, cuticles were all _______ for plants to move to land
diploid, meiosis, haploid
In the moss life cycle _____ cells within a sporangium undergo _____ to produce _____ spores.
thread like structures that anchor non vascular plants to the ground (mosses and liverworts)
A diploid sporophyte develops from a zygote that was produced when a ____________ sperm fertilized a __________ egg.
In _____________, while the gametophyte generation is independent, the diploid sporophyte is much larger.
In which of the following taxa does the mature sporophyte depend completely on the gametophyte for nutrition?
If a fern gametophyte is a hermaphrodite (that is, has both male and female gametangia on the same plant), then it belongs to a species that is _______________
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.
any of various pale or ashy mosses of the genus Sphagnum whose decomposed remains form peat
Whole forests were dominated by large, _____________ _____________ plants during the Carboniferous period
Lycophyta, bryophyta, chlorophyta, pterophyta
Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups
a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms
[plant-like] Green algae; unicellular. Photosynthetic. Most have flagella @ a point in life. Store food as starch.
Ferns. "Seedless plants". Among earliest vascular plants to colonize land. Life cycle involves alternation of generation (dominant stage is the sporophyte generation).
increased numbers of stomata, to maximize ability to absorb ever-decreasing levels of atmospheric CO2 all account for the increased number of stomata per ______________ _________, a beneficial adaptation during glacial periods
An ongoing trend in the evolution of plants is the reduction of the ___________ generation
water tight material that encases spores and pollen from modern plants helps resist drying,
the opening in the seed coat where the tube grows in order for the 2 sperm nuclei to fertilize the egg
Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte (megaspore mother cell), _____ survive(s).
an outer protective covering such as the skin of an animal or a cuticle or seed coat or rind or shell
Structure consisting of a few haploid cells surrounded by a thick protective wall that contains a male gametophyte of a seed plant
found in microsporangium; divides by meiosis, producing haploid microspores; a microspore develops into a pollen grain (a male gametophyte enclosed within the pollen wall)
dehiscent vs indeishescent ehetheror not the pericarp split at a stem ex legumes beans grains nuts
consists of the ovary and some additional parts of the flower that, whose seeds are dispersed by animals after they are eaten
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.
unique to angiosperms, term used to describe one sperm fusing with the egg, while the other fuses with two nuclei in the large central cell of the famale gametophyte.
Member of a clade consisting of the vast majority of flowering plants that have two embryonic seed leaves, or cotyledons.