human growth

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120 terms · chapter 1-6

Which type of development is most involved in the growth of body and brain, sensory capacities, motor skills, and health?

Physical

During which developmental period do children begin to regulate their own behavior and become more interested in their peer groups?

Middle childhood

The impact of technological developments such as video games, computers, and the Internet are considered

normative history-graded influences.

The world outside the self and the learning that comes from experiences in this world constitute
The world outside the self and the learning that comes from experiences in this world constitute

environment.

A possible strength associated with poverty would include

the increased number of meals eaten together.

According to your text, which of the following is NOT one of the major divisions of the life span?

Senescence

Normative history-graded influences include all of the following EXCEPT

death of a spouse.

Historically, the study of child development gained impetus from

immunization to protect children from disease,child labor laws, scientific discoveries about the nature of conception. all of these.

Marcus has stopped being so demanding and waits his turn when playing with his friends. He also appears to be more interested in others instead of himself. He is probably in what developmental period?

Early childhood

The principle that human development is adaptive means

it is aimed at dealing with internal and external conditions of existence.

Shayla is dependent on adults to meet her basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter, and to provide attachment bonding. She is experiencing the needs of what developmental period?

Infancy

The unfolding of a natural sequence of physical changes and behavior patterns describes

maturation.

The concept of individual differences implies that people differ in

size and build, intelligence and personalities, the influence of society and relationships they have. ALL OF THESE

A developmental scientist who studies brain development is studying the __________ domain of the self.

physical

Socioeconomic status is determined by all of the following EXCEPT

ethnicity.

When research deals with objectively measurable data, this is a description of

quantitative research

Which of the following is NOT one of the interrelated principles developed by Piaget to explain the gradual development of a child's mental processes?

unconscious processing

One commonly used type of written interview is a

questionnaire.

Professor Bailey watches Tehra closely through a one-way mirror as she participates in her social studies class. This is an example of what research method?

Naturalistic observation

According to Erikson, the resolution of the crisis at each stage of psychosocial development must include a _______ between positive and negative traits.

balance

Punishment __________ a behavior by bringing on a(n) _________ event.

suppresses; aversive or unpleasant

According to the _________ perspective, people's actions are reactions to aspects of their environment that they find pleasing, painful, or threatening.

behaviorism

One of the most reliable sampling methods is the use of _________, which increases the likelihood that the sample is representative of the population.

random selection

The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has significantly altered most government institutions there. According to the ecological approach, the government changes are changes in people's

macrosystem.

Two important learning theories are ____________ and ______________.

social learning theory; operant conditioning

Suppose your psychology professor asks you to do a study examining how emotional reactions change in children between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Given that the study needs to be completed in less then two weeks, which type of data collection method should you employ?

Cross-sectional

Which of the following is NOT one of the cognitive stages through which a child progresses, as theorized by Jean Piaget?

Post-conceptual

A researcher studies the relationship between family income and achievement motivation. A correlation of +1.20 is found. From this, the researcher can conclude that

an error was made in calculating the correlation.

A disadvantage of the use of naturalistic observation techniques is that they

are prone to observer bias

An in-depth study of an individual is a(n)

case study.

One of the criticisms of Freud's work is that he ____________________.

did not scientifically test concepts of id and superego

A controlled procedure in which the experimenter manipulates variables to learn how one affects another is a(n)

experiment.

Sociocultural theory, developed by _________, stresses children's active involvement with their environment as the process by which they acquire cognitive skills.

Lev Vygotsky

In a study of the effects of behavior modeling, one group of children observes role models who share toys; another group observes role models whose behavior is neutral (neither initiating sharing nor refusing to share). What is the independent variable?

Observing role models who share or don't share

Dr. Ellie Cheetham follows the same group of children over a 10-year period, measuring their performance twice a year. This is which method of data collection?

Longitudinal

Susan and Betty are monozygotic twins, while George and Brent are dizygotic twins. If a particular trait is determined primarily by hereditary factors, what would be the relative degree of concordance in these two twin pairs?

Susan and Betty would be more concordant than George and Brent.

Which of the following do doctors recommend about the use of alcohol during pregnancy?

Alcohol should be avoided entirely throughout the whole pregnancy.

Which of the following statements about prenatal developmental differences between the sexes is TRUE?

More males are conceived than females.

Social competence was measured in girls with Turner's syndrome, a defect in which the individual is missing an X chromosome. Those who received the single X from their fathers did better and were better adjusted than those that received the single X from their mothers. The dad's gene seemed to override the mother's chemically altered gene. This is an example of

genetic imprinting.

The process of sexual differentiation that occurs during the early weeks of prenatal development is now recognized as being __________ complex than was previously thought.

more

Suppose you are a health-care worker who is examining a child with the following symptoms: facial and bodily malformations, a short attention span, hyperactivity, and motor impairments. Which drug would you suspect that the child's mother took during pregnancy?

Alcohol

During the critical period between 8 and 15 weeks after fertilization, ____________ has been linked to mental retardation, chromosomal malformations, and seizures.

exposure to radiation

Christopher has a gene for Huntington's disease and will definitely have the disorder. This is an example of transmission by __________ inheritance.

dominant

You tell your parents that in college you wish to study the science of genetics. What will be the focus of your study?

The inborn, inherited factors that affect development.

Some infants are born with sex-linked disorders. These disorders are

often carried by a female although not apparent in her phenotype.

Jill used a substance during her pregnancy that is known to harm the fetus. Jill's baby was born shorter and lighter than average, has poor respiratory functioning, and tends to be colicky. The substance Jill probably used is

nicotine.

In human development class, Tasha and Vladimir learned that it is the chromosomes of __________ that will determine the sex of the child they hope to have together.

the father

Rubella has the greatest potential for damage when it is contracted during which period of a pregnancy?

First 11 weeks

The technique used to determine that male fetuses are more active and move more vigorously throughout gestation is

ultrasound.

which of the following traits would be the LEAST highly canalized in most human beings?

Body type

Marlin has been asked to go on a blind date with his friend Roger's sister. If Marlin wants to know facts like hair color, body type, etc., Roger will need to describe his sister's

phenotype.

Sexual differentiation in human embryos normally occurs during the ___________ after conception.

sixth to eighth weeks

If a mother wanted to have a clear image of the fetus in her womb, which procedure would she most likely use?

Ultrasound

Emanuel's friend, Natalie, has just given birth to a child with Down syndrome. What should he tell her about the future prospects for the child?

Although the child will be retarded, she can learn useful skills to support herself as an adult.

A process by which non-sex cells divide in half over and over again is

mitosis.

Of the following, the child likely to exhibit the SMALLEST reaction range for the trait of intelligence is the one born with

severe brain damage.

In which procedure is a sample of fluid taken from around the fetus and analyzed for possible defects?

Amniocentesis

Traits that are affected by many genes are

influenced through polygenic inheritance.

A pregnant woman's use of cocaine or methamphetamines increases the risk to her fetus of all of the following EXCEPT

obesity.

Of the following, the family with the LEAST need for genetic counseling is the one who

has a general concern about defects.

When tall homozygous pea plants are crossbred with homozygous short pea plants, the resulting hybrids are tall, but in the next generation, one out of four plants is short. This experiment demonstrates Mendel's law of

dominant inheritance.

Which of the following would be considered the most highly canalized trait at birth?

Sequence of motor development

If Laurie has albinism but neither of her parents exhibits this inherited condition, the trait must be __________ and Laurie's genotype for this trait is ________.

recessive; homozygous

The name for the process of cell division that produces copies of cells with the 46 chromosomes is

mitosis.

The first sense to develop is the sense of

touch

The left hemisphere of the brain is primarily involved with

language and logical thinking

The pattern of development that proceeds from the central part of the body to the outer parts is

Proximodistal.

Jonathan is born 38 weeks after conception and weighs 4 1/2 pounds. He is

small-for-date.

Cesarean birth rates in the United States are among the __________ in the world.

highest

Katrina is in labor. She is being attended by an experienced helper who offers emotional support. This person is a

doula

In a longitudinal study of extremely low-birth-weight infants, those who survived tended to be

smaller and more likely to have lower cognitive functions.

Approximately two weeks before Elizabeth's due date, her obstetrician told her that the uterine and cervical changes that bring on labor had begun. This process is referred to as

parturition.

Which brain region shows the most rapid growth during the first year of life?

Cerebellum

All of the following appear to increase the likelihood that a woman will deliver an underweight baby EXCEPT

genetic factors.

According to your textbook, which of the following statements about SIDS is TRUE?

It is associated with defects in the brain stem.

Ken and Stacy are the new parents of a very low-birth-weight baby. Due to its small size, the baby must remain in the hospital for several weeks. What advice is a doctor likely to give Ken and Stacy?

Visit the baby frequently and massage the baby to stimulate development.

At about 3 or 4 months of age, infants begin grabbing and putting into their mouths whatever they can reach. This action is the start of the process of

teething.

Auditory discrimination develops __________ after birth.

rapidly

Research shows that home births with a plan for hospitalization for emergencies can be

as safe as a hospital birth.

Which of the following is NOT one of the factors mentioned in the textbook that has contributed to children in Western industrialized nations growing taller and maturing sexually at an earlier age?

hormonal change

For how many hours a day does the average newborn sleep?

18

Dilation of the cervix occurs during which stage of childbirth?

first

An assessment of the newborn's appearance, pulse, reflex, activity, and breathing is called the

Apgar scale

Which childbirth technique substitutes voluntary or learned physical responses for the fear and pain?

Prepared

Austin has just been evaluated for his response to stress, ability to calm down, reflexes, hand-mouth coordination, alertness, and response to cuddling. Which test has he been given?

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale

An average 4-month-old has acquired which of the following skills?

Rolling over

An antiseptic, temperature-controlled crib for low-birth-weight babies is called an

isolette.

Alex is now in her 43rd week of pregnancy. Her unborn baby is considered to be

postmature.

Frequent visits to the hospital nursery by parents of a low-birth-weight baby

may speed the baby's discharge.

Why are there fontanels in a neonate's skull?

To ease the passage of the skull through the birth canal

Which principle does motor development in infancy follow?

Cephalocaudal, Proximodistal, and Simple-to-complex. ALL OF THESE

A healthy newborn can receive a maximum score of __________ on the Apgar scale.

10

Natural or prepared childbirth can minimize the need for

painkilling drugs.

The various states of arousal and activity that an infant demonstrates are regulated by

an internal "clock."

Researchers study infants' information processing by considering all of the following EXCEPT

language development.

Diane loves to play peek-a-boo. Peek-a-boo is played in many diverse cultures using similar routines. Which of the following is NOT an important purpose of the game?

It creates anxiety that makes babies stronger.

Implicit memory seems to develop ____________ explicit memory.

often repeat the action several weeks later.

A child who calls a dog a "bow-wow" and also calls a cat a "bow-wow" is

overextending.

The organization of linguistic processes in the brain may depend heavily on ____________ during maturation.

experience

HOME is an instrument for evaluating the impact of a child's home environment for

intellectual development.

Lenny searches for a toy that he saw his mother hide, first behind her back and then under a pillow. Lenny has acquired

object permanence.

Ten-month-old Nathan has just been told goodbye by his grandparents who are now leaving in their car. Nathan waves bye-bye to them with his left arm. Nathan's attempt to communicate with his grandparents is called a

conventional social gesture

ran says, "Yesterday, I sitted on the floor." This is an example of __________ grammatical rules

overregularizing

A child's first word appears at about what age?

10 to 14 months

Which cognitive characteristic in infants seems to be generally associated with high intelligence in middle childhood?

Rapid processing of perceptual information

Research on visual-tasks memory demonstrates that very young infants

pay more attention to new patterns than to familiar ones.

__________ is the principle "that allows people to predict and control their world."

Causality

Which of the following do infants NOT do during the first month of life according to Piaget?

Make acquired adaptations with mental representations

The use of parentese, or child-directed speech, includes which of the following?

Use of short words and simple sentences

Piaget called organized patterns of behavior

schemes

Which approach looks at the quality of cognitive functioning at different stages of life?

Piagetian

Symbolic gestures, such as blowing to mean hot, or sniffing to mean flower, emerge __________ babies say their first words.

about the same time

Meredith watches her mother pour water out of a glass into the sink. The next day, at the beach, Meredith pours water from a cup into a pail. Meredith is engaging in

deferred imitation.

Lukas was shown two toys at the same time. He looked for a short time at one and then turned to look at the other. This quick shift in attention shows that Lucas has good

visual-recognition memory.

Marla finds that rubbing her face against the satin edge of her blanket feels good. She learns to repeat this action to get a pleasurable sensation. According to Piaget, she has acquired a(n)

circular reaction.

Characteristics of early speech include all of the following EXCEPT

use of motherese.

Some researchers propose that infants may be born with or acquire very early reasoning abilities that help them make sense of the information they encounter. These abilities are called

innate learning mechanisms

According to research cited in the text, when do babies become able to distinguish different speech sounds such as mother speaking two languages?

Before birth

Which of the following is NOT one of the newer approaches to studying cognitive development?

Psychometric approach

When Piaget's daughter, Lucienne, figured out how to remove a watch chain from a box by widening the opening and opened and closed her mouth to signify this, she had reached what substage?

Substage 6—mental combinations

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