Sci 8 Obj 3 - Properties of Matter

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Texas TAKS Science 8 Objective 3 wrh bonham

Matter

anything that has mass and occupies space. All matter is made up of elements, compounds or a mixture of elements and compounds

Mass

can be measured with a triple beam balance

Volume

can be measured by l x w x h or a graduated cylinder

Solid

a state of matter with a defiant shape and volume

Liquid

a state of matter with no defiant shape but a defiant volume

Gas

a state of matter with no defiant shaper or volume

Physical change

a change in the states of matter

Chemical Change

a change in the bonds between the atoms of compounds

Atom

the smallest particle of an element. In their stable state atoms are neutral, in that6 they have the same number of positive protons as they do negative electrons

Element

a particle that is made up of two or more atoms (O2)

Nucleus

the center of an atom that contains protons with a positive charge and neutral neutrons

Protons

is a subatomic particle with an electrical charge of +1

Neutron

is a subatomic particle located in the center of the atom, with no charge

Electron

is a subatomic particle with an electrical change of -1 found outside of the nucleus

Valence electrons

the outermost electrons in an atom

Chemical symbol

an abbreviation of the name of an element

Atomic number

the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom

Mass number

the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom

Periodic table

an arrangement of elements in a table according tot their atomic numbers and physical properties

Group

a set of elements in one column in the periodic table. Elements in the same group have similar properties

Family

a set of elements in one row in the periodic table. These elements with similar energy levels

Ion

an atom that has gained or lost electrons which gives it a charge

Isotope

an element contains the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

Conductor

the movement of electricity through matter

Malleable

the ability to bend, able to be shaped or formed

Metal

a category of elements characterized by a shiny surface, the ability to be easily shaped, and high conductivity of electricity and heat.

Alkali metals

are metals with only one valence electron (group 1)

Alkaline metals

are metals with two valence electrons (group 2)

Transition metals

elements that have valance electrons at two different energy levels (groups 3-12)

Non metals

a category of elements characterized by a brittle nature, little to no luster, and poor conductivity of electricity and heat.

Metalloid

a category of elements that share some properties with metals and some with non metals, along the zigzag line on the periodic table of elements

Noble gases

a category of elements that have full valence electrons

Specific heat

a physical property of a substance, the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1 gram of the substance to change its temperature by 1 oC

Physical properties

characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of matter, color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction (paramagnetic) or repulsion (diamagnetic) to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density.

Chemical properties

characteristics that describe how a substance behaves in chemical reactions, heat of combustion, precipitate, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force

Mixture

formed when the atoms of two or more elements combine but do not form a new substance (sugar water)

Molecule

made of two or more of the same element

Compound

formed when the atoms of two or more elements combine to form a new substance (NaCl)

Chemical formula

the types of elements and numbers of atoms of each element in a substance (H2CO3)

Chemical reaction

one or more substances change to produce one or more new substances with different chemical properties

Endothermic

A chemical reaction that takes in energy during reaction

Exothermic

a chemical reaction that released energy during reaction

Precipitate

a solid material that can form during a chemical reaction

Chemical equation

represents a chemical reaction

Reactants

the substance or compound that gets consumed during a chemical equation or reaction

Products

the substance or compound at the end of a chemical equation or reaction

Coefficients

The number before the substance or compound (5NaCl)

Subscripts

the number after the substance or compound (h2o)

Law of Conservation of Mass

states that no mass can be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction

Chemical energy

energy that is stored in chemical bonds

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