Clep Sociology Practice Test

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Clep Sociology Practice Test

ENDOGOMY

Marrying within own social group

Goods

Tangible objects necessary or desired

Politics

Means in which some people acquire power to control the access of scarce resources.

Manifest Functions

Intended and overly recognized.

Cultural capital

high education, nice dress, manners, and knowledge of art and high culture.

Tracking

assignment of students to courses based on test scores or previous grades

Social Epidemiology

study of causes of health in a population

Working poor

live just above or below poverty line. Poorly paid, unskilled workers or service jobs

Social Stratification

hierarchal arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources. Determines which groups are allowed access to wealth and power.

Social power is held by bureaucracies

Max Weber

Prestige

respect or regard with which a person is regarded by others.

Majority Group

dominant in society. Advantaged and has superiority over resources

Who has more risk of living in poverty, the elderly or children?

Children

Human Ecology

relationship between people and the physical environment.

Gans-Ethnic Villages

live in tightly knit neighborhoods that resemble small towns.

Invasion Succession Cycle

low income people increases and start to spill over into middle class neighborhoods causing middle class people to move. Expands base of low income.

Social control

practiced by groups to confirm social norms. Internal (socialization) External (sanctions)

Retribution

The greater deviance of social harm, the greater the punishment.

Ascribed status

given at birth. Example-female or male

Comte

Founder of sociology

Mills sociological imagination-

helps distinguish between personal and public.

Founder of symbolic interaction perspective which suggest that society is the result of face-to-face interactions of people or groups.

Mead

Bois

University of Atlanta (African american school) sociologist.

Latent function

unintended or hidden function of an institution or organizations.

Conflict perspective

social groups are in constant struggle for access to control of resources.

Families of procreation

Families created by other means than natural conception. Example.....Adoption

Interlocking Corporate Directorates.

Members sit on boards of multiple corporations.

State

possesses legitimate monopoly over the use of force.

Underclass

poor, seldom employed, long term depravation class that often depends on welfare.

Viewed social class as a theory.

Weber

Added to Marx's insight

Weber

Moving from manufacturing to service jobs results in??

fewer higher paying jobs.

Crude death rate

deaths per 1000 people in a given year. Simplest death rate calculation.

Strain theroy

suggest that deviant behavior is caused by lack of access to legitimate means to achieve.

Secondary deviance

once labeled deviant; a person is more likely to exhibit deviant behavior which is called secondary deviance.

Interactionist theory

The interactionist approach focuses on how people in face-to-face interactions define the social situations of which they are part.

bilateral kinship

In bilateral kinship tracing systems, descent is traced through both the mother's and father's sides of the family. Children typically take the father's last name, however

socialist economic system

prices are set by the government. They are not the result of competition among the producers of goods.

Tertiary sector

production is the provision of services rather than goods

Pluralist model

assumes that political power is held by many different groups, who negotiate and compromise with one another.

Power

the ability to achieve goals despite opposition

WASP

white Protestants whose ancestors were from northern Europe

77 cents an hour

the difference in earnings between women and men is slightly less than

Elder abuse

to physical abuse, psychological abuse, financial exploitation, and medical abuse or neglect of people aged 65 or older.

Middle adulthood refers to people between the ages of

40 and 65

Mechanical solidarity

solidarity is based on the similarity among people, which leads to a sense of oneness with other members of the group.

Role exit

people's disengaging from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.When role exit occurs, people often adopt new roles that lead to new self-identities.

emigration

The movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residence elsewhere

Zone 1

s the central business district and cultural center

Sector model

emphasizes the significance of terrain and the particular importance of transportation routes in the layout of cities.proposes that cities grow outwards in sectors according to the location of physical features such as rivers and transportation lines such as railroads

central characteristics of a normative organization

It is voluntary

precipitating factor.

value-added model suggests that social movements develop in response to certain inciting incidents or dramatic events called precipitating factors.

role taking

process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the world from that person's or group's point of view. For children, role-taking often occurs within play or games.

Diffusion

When two diverse cultures come into contact with each other, each adopts some of the other culture's ways as its own

impression management

people attempt to play their social roles as well as possible and to control the impressions they convey to others.

Proletariat

used by Karl Marx to describe the masses of people whose only resources are their labor skills

Early nineteenth-century sociologist considered by some to be an original founder of the discipline of sociology.

Harriet Martineau

functionalist theory, functions are

the beneficial consequences of people's actions

Microlevel analysis

Symbolic interactionist theory focuses on face-to-face interaction, which makes it a microlevel approach.

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