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For PGS 101 at ASU

sensation

The stimulus of the sense organs.

perception

What the stimulus of the sense organs is interpreted to be

supraliminal

Conciouss perception

subliminal

Subconciouss perception

adaptation

Sensory _________ is where one only perceives changes to the stimuli.

distal

__________ stimuli comes from outside of the body.

proximal

__________ stimuli is energy that plays on the sensory organs.

perceptual

__________ hypothesis tries to make sense of stimulus.

light waves

What is the stimulus of vision?

amplitude

What determines the height or brightness of light waves?

wavelength

What determines the frequency, length, or "hue" of light waves?

purity

What determines of the saturations of light waves?

lens

This part of the eye focuses the image onto the retina.

pupil

This part of the eye regulates the amount of light passing through.

retina

This part of the eye projects images upside down.

fovia

This part of the eye is at the center of the retina and is composed of nothing but cones.

rods

These parts of the eye are needed for night and peripheral vision.

cones

These parts of the eye are needed for daylight and color vision.

30

It takes about _______ minutes to fully adjust for dramatic changes in lighting.

optic chiasm

The ________ _________ is the point at which the optic nerves from the inside half of each eye cross over and then project to the opposite half of the brain.

simple

________ cells are feature detectors that are specific to width, orientation, and position.

complex

________ cells are feature detectors that are specific to width and orientation.

hypercomplex

________ cells are feature detectors that are specific to width.

trichromatic

The __________ theory of color vision states that there are three different kinds of cells called "cones" that are responsible for presenting color. For colors other than the base three (red, blue, and green) there is color mixing.

complimentary

The oppenent process theory argues that there are __________ colors to explain the phenomena of after images.

feature analysis

This form perception theory states that perception is based on the established shapes that make up the image.

figure/ground

This Gestalt principle is where one cannot see both sides of an image concurrently.

proximity

This Gestalt principle is where things nearby each other seem to belong together.

similarity

This Gestalt principle is where similar elements are grouped.

continuity

This Gestalt principle is where points can be connect by an imaginary line.

closure

This Gestalt principle is where similar elements are grouped to create a sense of completeness.

common region

This Gestalt principle is where objects in the same region are grouped.

connectedness

This Gestalt principle is where group information is connected between groups.

binocular

This kind of depth perception involves the interaction between the two eyes.

monocular

This kind of depth perception involves the individual eye.

retinal disparity, convergence

Name the two binocular cues.

linear perspective, relative size, interposition, texture gradient, height in plane, shadowing

Name the six monocular cues.

color, size, shape

What three things contribute to a sense of perceptual consistency?

sound waves

What is the stimulus for the auditory system?

waveheight (db)

What is the amplitude of sound waves measured in?

pitch (Hz)

What is the wavelength of sound waves measured in?

timbre

What is the purity of sound waves measured in?

20; 20,000

Human hearing capacity is from _____ to _____ Hz.

outer

The pinna and ear canal are part of the ________ ear.

hammer, anvil, stirrup

What are the three ossicles found in the middle ear?

inner

The _________ ear consists of the conchlea and the basilar membrane (or celia).

place; frequency

The two theories of pitch perception are the _______ theory and the ________ theory.

soluble chemicals

What are the stimuli of the gustatory system?

sweet, sour, bitter, salty, unami

List the four primary tastes in addition to the unproven taste.

soluble chemicals

What are the stimuli of the olfactory system?

olfactory celia

What are the receptors for the olfactory system?

themal, chemical, or mechanical energy

What are the stimuli for the tactile system?

nerve cells

What are the receptors for the tactile system?

temperature, pain, pressure, touch

List the four basic skin senses.

CIP (congenetal insensitivity to pain)

What is the name of the disorder where one cannot feel anything?

kinesthetic

The ____________ system keeps track of the location and position of your body parts.

vestibular

The ____________ system keeps track of the body's position relative to gravity.

synesthesia

This is a phenomena involving cross wiring between or within senses.

phrenology

The study of scalps where different personality traits are associated to different places of the skull.

Franz Gall

The founder of phrenology

glia cells

Cells that provide structure and insulation for the nerves.

neurons

Cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information.

-70 mV

What is the resting potential of neurons?

positive

The action potential of neurons increases as the charge gets more and more __________.

absolute refractory period

This is where a neuron cannot fire immediately after firing previously.

excitatory

The postsynaptic potential is ___________ when it is more likely to fire, or is positive.

inhibitory

The postsynaptic potential is ___________ when it is less likely to fire, or is negative.

terminal buttons

The axon ends in a cluster of these small knovs that secrete neurotransmitters for activating neurons.

reuptake

This sponges up the neurotransmitters

enzyme activation

The process by which neurotransmitters are broken down.

dopamine

Too much of this neurotransmitter can cause schizophrenia.

seratonin

Not enough of this neurotransmitter can cause depression.

norepinephrine

Too much of this neurotransmitter can cause anxiety.

GABA

Not enough of this neurotransmitter can cause overeating.

endorphins

This neurotransmitter reduces pain.

acetylcholine

Not enough of this neurotransmitter can cause dementia and memory loss.

agonists

These types of drugs excite neurotransmitters by either micking them or by blocking reuptake.

antagonists

These types of drugs inhibit neurotransmitters by either inhibiting release or by blocking receptors.

central nervous system

This system of nerves includes those found in the brain and the spinal cord.

peripheral nervous system

This system of nerves includes all of those outside of the brain and spinal cord.

somatic nervous system

This system of nerves includes those going to and from voluntary muscles and sensory receptors.

afferent

__________ fibers connect to the brain.

efferent

__________ fibers connect from the brain.

autonomic nervous system

This system of nerves includes those going to and from automatic functions.

sympathetic nervous system

This system of nerves is part of the autonomic nervous system and is responsable for mobilizing resources.

parasympathetic nervous system

This system of nerves is part of the autonomic nervous system and is responsable for conserving resources.

spinal cord

How does the brain communicate with the body and vice versa?

speed

The __________ of the communication within the central nervous system is determined by the type of fiber and the distance traveled.

contralaterality

________________ refers to something being positioned on the opposite side of the body. For example, the right arm and the left.

frontal

The _________ lobe of the brain is used for higher level functioning, such as decision making, movement, and impulse control.

parietal

The _________ lobe of the brain is used for processing tactile information.

occipital

The _________ lobe of the brain is used for processing visual information.

temporal

The _________ lobe of the brain is used for the olfactory, auditory, and gustatory senses, as well as for processing language.

lower brain stem & cerebellum

These two parts of the brain control basic life functions and drives as well as memory and emotion.

higher cerebral hemisphere

This part of the brain functions via neural networks and controls perception, thought, and language.

thalamus

This part of the lower brain processes sensory information.

hypothalamus

This part of the lower brain regulates instincts.

cerebral cortex, cerebral hemispheres, corpus callosum

What are the three major parts of the cerebrum, or higher brain?

corpus callosum

This connects the two hemispheres of the brain.

left

The ______ hemisphere of the brain specializes in verbal processes.

right

The ______ hemisphere of the brain is specializes in non-verbal processes.

neurogenesis

This is the rare phenomena of the brain being able to regrow dead brain cells.

plasticity

This is the ability of the brain to rewire.

EEG

This measures electrical voltage or brain waves.

CAT & MRI

These provide an X-ray of the brain structures.

PET

This measures brain activity

fMRI

This measures brain activity without the need for a radioactive injection.

chromosomes

DNA composes these.

alleles

Genes are composed of a pair of these.

monogenic

A characteristic that is controlled by a single pair of genes is _____________.

polygenic

A characteristic that is controlled by multiple pairs of genes is _____________.

20; 70

Genes account for ____% to ____% of the variations found in every human behavior.

Qualitative

The purpose of this research method is to explore.

Quantitative

The purpose of this research method is to describe, compare, and test.

qualitative survey, natural observation, case study

Name the three methods by which one can go about conducting a Qualitative study.

descriptive, correlational, experimental

Name the three methods by which one can go about conducting a Quantitative study.

qualitative survey

This kind of study involves measuring the opinions or attitudes of the public through questionaires and the like.

natural observation

This kind of study involves observing public behavior while making sure not the intervene in the natural conditions of said behavior.

case study

This kind of study involves interviews, observations, records, and testing to examine unsual or infrequent phenomena.

descriptive research

This kind of study involves learning descriptive information about a group or event through the use of records, surveys, interviews, and observations.

mean

The average

median

The middle number - used if there are any extremes or outlyers

mode

The most frequent

percentages

Use for categories

correlation research

This kind of study involves investigating possible relationships between two or more different variables, although it is limited in that it cannot determine cause and effect.

-1.00 to +1.00

What is the range of the correlation coefficient (R)?

increases

When the correlation coefficient (R) is positive, then when one variable increases the other ________.

decreases

When the correlation coefficient (R) is negative, then when one variable increases the other ________.

experiments

These kinds of studies involve drawing cause & effect conclusions by manipulating a variable under controlled conditions.

independent variable

This variable is the one that the experiment manipulates.

dependent variable

This variable is the outcome thought to be affected by a change in the independent variable.

experimental group

This is the test group that receives the independent variable.

control group

This is the test group that doesn't receive the independent variable.

randomly

In order for your study to be a true experiment participants must be assigned into groups _________.

experiments

Keywords: cause, lead to, results in, affects

correlational research

Keywords: relationships, related, linked, associated

descriptive research

Keywords: describe, demographics, composition

qualitative survey

Keywords: opinions, attitudes

natural observation

Keywords: public behavior

case study

Keywords: unusual or inferquent phenomena

significantly different

What does it mean when the p-value is less than .05?

not significant

What does it mean when the p-value is greater than .10?

marginally significant

What does it mean when the p-value is inbetween .05 and .10?

Wundt & Tichner

These two psychologists favored the study of Structuralism.

Wundt

This early psychologist established psychology as a displine, as well as the first psych lab and journal in Germany.

G. Stanley Hall

He was the first American psychologist who founded the first psychology lab and psychology journal in America. He also founded the APA.

American Psychology Association

What does APA stand for?

Hall & James

These two psychologists favored the study of Functionalism.

Watson

This psychologist favored the study of Behaviorism.

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