Leader of the 1800 Democratic-Republican party. Defeated John Adams by 8 electoral votes. First President to take office in Washington D.C. & Reelected in 1804
He regarded Burr as unqualified for presidency
Became Vice President
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.....Calls for electors to cast separate ballots for President and Vice President, .
Jeffersons theory of government which held that a simple government best suited the needs of the people.
Jefferson Shrinking the Government
Reduced Size of the Army, Halted planned expansion of the Navy, Lowered expenses for government social functions, eliminated all internal taxes, reduced influence of the Bank of the US
Its location between Maryland and Virginia reflected the growing importance o the South in politics
4th and 5th Presidents also from Virginia
James Madison and James Monroe
Jeffersons Secretary of State; Elected as President in 1808
Marbury vs Madison (1803)
Jefferson ordering James Madison not to deliver (previous president) John Adams signed documents (to influence future judicial decisions). Congress found that Madison being forced to hand over papers was unconstitutional
The Principal of Judicial Review
The ability of the supreme court to declare law-Unconstatutional
Persuaded Spain to return to France the Louisiana Territory
The Louisiana Purchase
Offered by Napoleon Bonaparte; More than doubled the size of the US. $15Million Dollars
Mariwether Lewis & William Clark
Set off in 1804 lead a group (including Patrick Gass) to explore the New Territory (Louisiana Purchase). They brought back valuable information about the West and showed that transcontinental travel was possible.
War of 1812
lead by Madison against Great Britian
Causes of War
Impressment, British-Canada supplying Native Americans with armory to fight off American Settlers, War Hawks demanding war
Course of War
Lack of support, Few military volunteers, Ill-Prepared, Britian too preoccupied with France, British Burn US Capital and Presidential Mansion, Treaty of Ghent signed.
Consequences of War
End of the federalist party, Encouraged growth of American industries to manufacture products no longer available from Britain, and confirmed the US free and independent.
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815).
Treaty of Ghent
Signed Christmas Eve 1814; Declared an rmistice
end to fighting
Elected president in 1816
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of Sate to James Monroe; Established a foreign policy based on nationalism
a belief that national interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns, such as slavery in the south or tariffs in the North East
Convention of 1818
fixed the US border at the 49th parallel from Michigan west to the Rocky Mountains.
Don Luis de Onis
Spanish Minister to the US; Adams convinced him to transfer Florida to the US
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
Established a western boundary for the US that extended along the Sabine River from the Gulf of Mexico north to the Arkansas River to its source, and then North to the 42nd parallel, and west the the Pacific Ocean
Trade with China
Brought huge profit the the US....Was threatened for America if Russian was to take action....
1823 Monoroe message to Congress
All european powers should not interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere. Such an action would be "Dangerous to our peace and safety" at the same time the US would not involve itself with European affairs or existing colonies in Western Hemisphere.
foundation for future american policy...represented an important step onto the world stage by the assertive young nation
The Industrial Revolution
Large scale production resulting in massive change in social and economic organization
Invented the Cotton Gin
By Eli Whitney it made producing cotton more profitable and much faster.
The South. Due to the Cotton Gin the south was in need for more field labor
Economic Differences between North and South
Created political tension. North was industrializing while the south was focused more on farming
House , United States politician responsible for the Missouri Compromise between free and slave states (1777-1852)
By House Speaker Henry Clay
*Establishing a protective tariff
*Rechartering the National Bank
*Sponsoring the development of transportation sytem and other international improvements
John C Calhoun
VP to Jackson
Maine admitted as a slave state and Missouri as a slave state
Slave legal in this state
Slave free state
36/30 Dividing line
North of the division line-Slavery was banned except in the state of Missouri
South of the division line- Slavery was legal
A man who embraced the spirit that expansion and to many personified.
Supporters of Jackson
National Republican Party
Supporters of Clay
Enlarging Voting Population
1824- 350,000 white males vote
1828 - over 3x more voted
New common people eligible for voting
Jacksons ideal for political power or all classes
New Administration hire their own supporters to replace supporters of previous administration. By doing so he gave away huge numbers of jobs to family and friends and political allies
The Indian Removal Act
Used Federal government funds to negotiate treaties that would force the Native Americans to move West
The Trail of Tears
US Troops rounded up Cherokee Indians and forced them off in Groups of 1,000 each to undergo a 800 mile long journey. More than a quarter died
Cherokee Indian Nation
Refused and fought government during the Indian Removal Act
______ became rich in expense of the ________
Theory of Nullification
Held that US Constitution was based on a compact among the sovereign states. Each state would have the right to determine if acts of congress were unconstitutional. The State could declare the offending law nullified or inoperative within its borders
Senator of Massachusetts that opposed nullificaion
South carolina senator that aired Colhouns views
Clays 1833 Compromise
Clay proposed a tariff bill that would gradually lower duties over a ten year period
Killing the National Bank
Jakcson believed national back was for wealthy and didnt care for the common people. Jackson withdrew all government deposits from banks branches and put them into certain banks called "Pet banks" because of loyalty to democratic party
Martin Van Buren
Democratic candidate in 1836. Had Jacksons support and easily won election.
opponents of President Jackson
VP of Harrison. Took office after assasination 1 month after inauguration
William Henry Harrison
Whig party candidate. Won election of 1840. Known as "Tippecanoe" old war hero. Assasinated 1 month into office
became a form of mass entertainment
the belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean
The Panic of 1837
Major economic depression lasting about six years; touched off by a British financial crisis and made worse by falling cotton prices, credit and currency problems, and speculation in land, canals, and railroads. Also caused by Jackson's emptying of the Bank of the US.
Santa Fe Trail
a trail that extends from Missouri to New Mexico
Pioneer trail that began in missouri and crossed the great plains into the oregon country
Marcus and Narcissa Whitman
They were missionaries , and a couple, that got married in 1836 and set out for Oregon where they planned to convert local Native Americans to christianity
church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah, religious group that emphasized moderation, saving, hard work, and risk-taking; moved from IL to UT
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
He became the Mormon leader after Joseph Smith was killed. He led a mass migration of 17,000 people across the Great Plains and settled in what is today, Salt Lake City, Utah. He established towns throughout Utah, Idaho, and Arizona. Bringham Young University (BYU) is a university named after Young.
Salt Lake City
Brigham Young led Mormons here in 1847 to escape persecution, believed in polygamy and strong social order
The Webster Ashburn Treaty
Settled territorial disputes in the East and Midwest.
Mexican residents of Texas
Stephen F Austin
Known as the Father of Texas, led the second and ultimately successful colonization of the region by bringing 300 families from the United States.
First America to receive Spanish land grant in Mexico, later Texas. He died and passed land to his son.
San Filipe de Austin
Main colony in Texas
Mexico & Slavery
Mexico abolished slavery in 1829 and insisted that Texas abolished as well
Became increasingly unstable
President of Mexico in 1833
War between Texas settlers and Mexico from 1835-1836 resulting in the formation of the Republic of Texas
commander of Anglo Troops
A mission and fort in the center of San Antonio
Gained on March 2nd 1836 after battle of the Almo vs the Rebels
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863)
Texas toward the Union
*Southerners wanted Texas in order to extend slavery
*Northerners feared that the annexation of more slave territory would tip the uneasy balance in the senate in favor of slave states and prompt war with mexico
James K Polk
President in March 1845. wanted to settle oregon boundary dispute with britain. wanted to aquire California. wanted to incorperate Texas into union.
Polks belief in Texas
Believed war with Mexico would not only bring Texas into the union but also New Mexico and California
in a desperate move, polk sent this man to mexico in 1845. he was going to make an offer for california , but the mexicans wouldnt even let him make the proposal.
John C Fremont
Led a military exploration in California violating Mexicos territorial rights
American general in war with Mexico, he captured Santa Fe without fireing a shot
Republic of California
the nation proclaimed by American settlers in California when they declared their independence from Mexico in 1846
Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott
the two american generals who led the main invasion forces in mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
1848. Awarded as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo after the Mexican American War. U.S. paid $15 million for 525,000 square miles.
location where gold was discovered in california in 1848, setting off the gold rush
discovered gold in California while building a sawmill for John Sutter
Owner of the mill where gold was discovered that helped start the California Gold Rush
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
editor of the "New York Tribune".... "Go west, young man!"
Economic changes where people buy and sell goods rather than make them themselves
US Markets Expand
buying and selling multiplied while incomes rose.
economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
individuals who start new businesses, introduce new products, and improve management techniques
Samuel F.B Morse
inventor of the telegraph
This man invented the first commercially successful steamboat in the United States. "Clermont"
New forms of travel
Steamboats and railroads
only 14% o the [population had manufacturing jobs
invented the steel plow
invented the mechanical reaper
Chnged the ways americans worked. Changed relationships between employees and employers. changed relationships between co-workers.
Lowell Textile Mills
19th-century mills for the manufacture of cloth, located in Lowell, Massachusetts, that mainly employed young women.
A work stoppage to force an employer to respond to demands
movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population
Harrassed by protestants because they were poor and roman catholic
Great Potato Famine
The death of 750,000 Irish from starvation and disease when blight destroys the potato crop in 1845
National Trades Union
Began to seek better wages, working conditions, and job security - resented bankers and owners
Commonwealth vs. Hunt
Declared that labor unions were lawful organizations and that the strike was a lawful weapon
Movement to end slavery
a member of a religious group that emphasizes reason and faith in an individual; deny the idea of the Holy Trinity
Ralph Waldo Emerson
United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)
any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material
African American Church
Free African Americans in the north were able to form their own churches. They became political cultural and social centers by providing schools and other services whites denied them.
William LLoyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
Majority had been born in America and spoke English. Hard work and oppression stayed constant in slave lifes
most worked as servants, farm hands, or field workers
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
slave rebellion in Virginia led by Nat Turner. It increased owner protection on their slaves to avoid future rebellions
the freeing of slaves
Campaign to limit or ban the use of alcoholic beverages
Tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill and the inhumane prison system. Appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces.
A woman who published a pamphlet arguing for equal rights of women called "Letters on the Equality of the Sexes and the Condition of Women". She also argued for equal education opportunities.
in 1821 founded Troy Female Seminary in New York which was a model for girls' schools everywhere
(AJ) in 1837 founded the first college for women, Mount Holyoke Female Seminary
First woman to receive a medical degree in the U.S.
sister of Harriet Beecher Stowe, encouraged women to enter the teaching profession b/c their "natural" role suited them to the care and nurturing of children. She combined the "cult of domesticity" with educational reform.
abolitionist teacher who began school for African American girls
White Quaker who opened a school in Canterbury, CT and admitted a black girl.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A prominent advocate of women's rights, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention with Lucretia Mott
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)