basic unit of matter
center of the atom which contains the protons and neutrons
negatively charged particle located outside the atomic nucleus
substance consisting entirely of one type of atom
atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other
substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportion
chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
positively and negatively charged atoms
chemical bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms
smallest unit of most compounds; structure that results when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds
van der Waals force
a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules
attraction between molecules of the same substance
attraction between molecules of different substances
material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substance are evenly distributed
substance that is dissolved
substance in which solute dissolves
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution
any compound that forms H+ ions in solution; pH less than 7
compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution; pH greater than 7
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
large compound formed from combination of many monomers
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in ratio 1:2:1
single sugar molecule
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, steroids, and waxes
macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose; functions in synthesis of proteins coded for by DNA
macromolecule that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
compound with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl (-COOH) on the other end
process that changes or transforms one set of chemicals into another
element or compound that enter into a chemical reaction
element or compound produced by a chemical reaction
energy needed to get a reaction started
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
proteins that act as biological catalysts
reactants of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
What is the function of lipids?
store and transmit hereditary information
What are the functions of nucleic acids?
main source of energy; structural purposes
What are the functions of carbohydrates?
amino acid monomer
carbon covalently bonded to hydrogen, amino group (NH3), carboxyl group (COOH), and variable R group specific to each amino acid
polymers break into monomers by adding water
amino acids joining into polymer while getting rid of water
saturated with hydrogen, only single C-C bond, solid at room temperature; most animal fats
liquid at room temperature, double bonds between carbons allow for kink in tail; most plant fats
fat with many double bonds
cytosine, thymine/uracil; single ring
adenine, guanine; double ring
induced fit model
enzymes' active sites change with substrate until product finished
Which element in water has most of the negative charge in the polar covalent bond?
any process by which electrically neutral atoms or molecules are converted to electrically charged atoms or molecules; causes molecules to separate into ions
material inside the cell membrane; provides medium for chemical reactions to take place; contains organelles to carry out functions
layer of two membranes of phospholipids that surrounds the nucleus of a cell; contains pores for materials to enter and leave nucleus
granular material visible within nucleus; DNA bound to protein
threadlike structure within nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
small, dense region within most nuclei in which assembly of proteins; assembly of ribosomes
small particle in cell on which proteins are assembled; made of RNA and protein
internal membrane system in cells in which lipid components of cell membrane are assembled and proteins and other materials are exported
rough endoplasmic reticulum
new proteins are inserted to be modified
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
collection of enzyme that perform specialized tasks
stack of membranes in cell that sorts, modifies, and packages proteins from ER to be sorted or secreted from cell
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell; digest lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins; break down useless organelles
contains DNA and instructions for making proteins
cell organelle that sores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates; supports heavy structures in plants
cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for cell use; supports heavy structures in plants
organelle found in plant cells and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
network of protein filaments within some cell that helps the cell maintain its shape and is involved in many forms of cell movement
flexible frame supporting cell, helps cells move; made of protein actin
form mitotic spindle, maintain cell shape; made of protein tubulin; builds projection from cell surfaces
one of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope; organizes cell division
glycerol and phosphate
What are phospholipid heads made of?
Phospholipid tails are made of fatty acids and are....?
Phospholipids can move...?
What type of proteins are attached on the surface of the cell membrane?
What type of proteins are embedded completely through the cell membrane?
regulates what enters and leaves the cell and provides support
have carbohydrate tails to act as markers for cell recognition in the cell membrane
What are cell walls of plants made of?
What are cell walls of fungi made of?
What are cell walls of bacteria made of?