Sociology 200 - Chapter 12

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what started the agricultural revolution?

the ability to plant/farm, making sedentary life possible

what does sedentary life allow members of the agricultural revolution?

larger populations

what effect does the progression from one revolution to the next have on social order?

each successive revolution requires more structured social order

what does the industrial revolution bring about?

specialized work, a surplus of labor, city development, urban movement

why did the industrial revolution result in a surplus of labor?

farming requires a lot of workers

what does the information revolution bring about?

outsourcing and importing, supposed to create a global niche to be an international hub, working from home, welfare capitalism

the 5 government powers

legal, discretionary, social, coercive/military, expert

the economy

the social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services

the primary sector of the economy

the part of the economy that draws raw materials from the natural environment

the secondary sector of the economy

part of the economy that transforms raw materials into manufactured goods

the tertiary sector of the economy

the part of the economy that involves services rather than goods

welfare capitalism

an economic and political system that combines a mostly market0based economy with extensive social welfare programs

under welfare capitalism, a nation's government owns

some of the largest industries and services (such as transporation, the mass media, and health care)

state capitalism

an economic and political system in which companies are privately owned but cooperate closel with the government

monarchy

a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation

democracy

a political system that gives power to the people as a whole

authoritarianism

a political system that denies the people participation in government

totalitarianism

a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates peoples' lives

welfare state

a system of government agencies and programs that provides benefits to the population

the pluralist model

an analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest group

the power-elite model

an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich

the marxist political-economy model

an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a societ's economic system

which analysis of politics goes with structural-functionalism?

the pluralist model

which analysis of politics goes with social conflict?

the power elite and marxist political-economy models

according to the pluralist model, how is power spead throughout society?

widely so that all groups have some voice

according to the pluralist model, is the u.s. a democracy?

yes because power is spread widely enough

according to the power-elite model, how is power spread througout society?

concentrated in the hands of top business, political, and military leaders

according to the power elite model, is the u.s. a democracy?

no because power is too concentrated

according to the marxist political economy model, how is power spread throughout society?

directed by the operation of the capitalist economy

according to the marxist political economy model, is the u.s. a democracy?

no because the capitalist economy sets political decision making

what are the four things that lead to political revolution?

rising expectations, unresponsive government, radical leadership by intellectuals, establishing a new legitimacy

the five causes of war

perceived threats, social problems, political objectives, moral objectives, the absence of alternatives

the four ways to pursue peace

deterrence, high-technology defense, diplomacy and disarmament, resolving underlying conflict

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