CN I Olfactory
Sensory: smell (close eyes and smell object)
CN II Optic
Sensory: Vision (Read time off clock, light test)
CN III Occulomotor
Motor: muscles that move eye, ciliary muscle, sphincter of pupil (ciliospinal, light, consensual)
CN IV Trochlear
Motor: muscles that move the eye diagonally (corneal)
CN V Trigeminal
Sensory: touch to skin of face, teeth, gums, jaw (poke skin and identify when they feel it). Motor: Muscles of Mastication (clench teeth)
CN VI Abducens
Motor: moves eye left and right (corneal)
CN VII Facial
Sensory: Taste of anterior 2/3 Tongue (pepsi vs coke test). Motor: Muscles of face such as puckering lips, winking the eye, smile
CN VIII Vestibularcochlear
Sensory: Hearing, balance, equilibrium (close eyes and tell which side has pen clicking by it)
CN IX Glossopharyngeal
Sensory: Taste of posterior 1/3 of tongue and pharyngeal walls (gag reflex, touch sides of mouth with cotton swab). Motor: Pharyngeal muscles (Gag Reflex)
CN X Vagus
Sensory: Visceral organ sensory of heart, lungs, trachea, GI tract, pharynx, larynx (feel throat structures when swallowing). Motor: skeletal muscles of swallowing, visceral organs, muscles of vocal cords (swallowing, Gag Reflex)
CN XI Spinal Accessory
Motor: Muscles of neck that move head (push against head and resist the force)
CN XII Hypoglossal
Motor: Muscles of the tongue (stick tongue out, move around)
Straieted our main concern for dentisrty-- voluntary movement
Movement is involuntary
Muscle of the heart that is involuntary
Origin of Muscle Attachment
Fixed attachment proximal or close to the axial skelteon.. ATTACHED TO LEAST MOVABLE STRUCTURE
Insertion of Muscle Attachment
Moveable attachment-diatal or far from axial skeleton (to move moveable structure) ATTACHED TO A MORE MOVEABLE STRUCTURE
Muscles become thickened and shortened in normal response to a nerve stimulus- In general: Insertion moves toward the origin when the muscle is contracted
Muscles are less tense and rigid (opposite of contracted)
slight state of contraction
Movement accomplished by a muscle fibers contract
Insertion: Cornoid Process of the Mandible Function: Elevates the mandible
Most obvious and superficial muscle of mastication and strongest
Insertion- Angle of the mandible (on buccal side) Function: Elevates the Mandible
Insertion: Ramus of the Mandible Function: Elevates or raisies the mandible, closes the jaw/mouth occludes the teeth, helps the mandibular sling
Internal Pertigoid Muscle
Insertion: Angle of the mandible on the lingual side Function: Elevates the mandible/ closes jaw- adds crushing power helps form the mandibular sling
External Pterygoid Muscle
Allows lateral movement (deviation) of the mandible
originate from surface of the skull (bone) and insert on dermis of skin tissue
Function: Closes and compresses lips/ puckers/ purses lips, used to whistle or suck on a straw does not aid in smiling
Assists muscles of mastication ( Accessory muscle of mastication keeps food pushed back on occulsal surface for chewing
raises and wrinkles skin of chin and pushes up lower lip
draws angel of mouth upward and backward; aids in smiling
Elevates upper lip assists in smiling
Widens the mouth; streches lip laterally which aids in smiling
Elevates raises the upper lip
Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi
Elevates upper lip and ala "sneering" expression (raise side of lip); dialates the nostrils
Levator Anguli Oris Muscle
Elevates the angle of the mouth; smile
Depressor Anguli Oris Muscle
Depresses lowers the lip causing it to pout
Raises the skin of neck pulles the corner of the mouth down, grimaces
Raises the eyebrows and scalp show surprise frown or squint
Obicularis Oculi Muscle
Closes the eyelid; Squint if all fibers are active get crow's feet
Corrugater Supercilii Muscle
draws the skin tissue of the eyebrow medially and inferiorly toward the noses (frowning)
Intrinsic Tounge Muscles
Four sets consisting of the superior longitudinal, inferior longitudinal ,transverse and vertical muscles. All in which shorten, thicken, curl, lenghten and narrow the tounge.
Depresses or protrudes the tounge "sticking out the tounge"
retracts and pulls down the side of the tounge
Retracts the Tounge
Digastric Muscle ( Suprahyoid Muscle)
Has muclse fibers at either end and a collagenous tendon in the middle intermediate tendon..Function: By contracting it can create a backward pull on the mandible (retrude the mandible)
Mylohyoid Muscle (Suprahyoid Muscle)
Deep to digastric paired muscle that forms the floor of the mouth. Function: Depression of the mandible or the elevation of the hyoid bone and tounge.
Geniohyoid Muscle (Suprahyoid Muscle)
Function; Depressor of the mandible or elevator of the hyoid bone and tounge
Stylohoyoid Muscle ( Suprahyoid Muscle)
Pulls the hyoid bone back and up
Consist of the Omohyoid, Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid all in which depress or pull the hyoid bone down.
Class 3 lateral pterygoids acting together
Class 2 temporalis and digastric muscles acting together
Lateral Excursion of the Mandible
one lateral pterygoid alone (acting by itself and contracting)
Elevation of the Mandible
closing of mouth; medial pterygoid, massester and temporalis
Depression of the Mandible
opening mouth: lateral pterygoid and hyoid muscles (both suprahyoid and infrahyoid)
directs food to enter espphagus
tilting and roatating the head; allows head and neck to bend and flex
adduct and elevate the scalpula and slightly roatate the scalpula; Action of shrugging the shoulders and holding arms in a riased position
Muscles of the Pharynx
Involved in speaking Swallowing Middle ear function
Phyryngeal elevators and dilators
Elevate the phyarnx
Levator veli palatini
Muscle of the soft palate that when contracted it raises the soft palate to contact the posterior pharyngeal wall
7th Cranial Nerve/Facial Nerve
Innervates the muscles of facial expression
Opthalmic, Maxillary, Mandibular
What are the 3 branches of the Trigeminal Nerve?
What bone contains: Superior Orbital Fissure, Foramen Ovale, Formaen Rotundum?
This bone does NOT form a joint with any other bone.
"On Old Olympus Towering Top A Finn And German Viewed Some Hops"
What is the mneumonic for remembering the 12 Cranial Nerves?
"Some Say Marry Money But My Brother Says Big ***** Marry Money"
What is the mneumonic for remembering Sensory/Motor of the 12 Cranial Nerves?
CN I: Olfactory
Sense of Smell
CN II: Optic
Sense of Sight
CN III: Oculomotor
Eye muscles, pupil, lens...
CN IV: Trochlear and CN VI: Abducens
Eye muscles (2)
CN VII: Facial
Muscles of Facial expression, parasympathetic to sublingual & submandibular salivary glands, Taste to anterior tongue, Chorda tympani is branch to glands, tongue
CN VIII: Vestibulococchlear
Sense of hearing & balance
CN IV: Glossopharyngeal
Taste, sensation of posterior tongue, parasympathetic to parotid gland
CN X: Vagus
Muscles of: pharynx, larynx soft palate; smooth muscle, glands, cardiac muscle, root of tongue & epiglottis
CN XI: Accessory
Trapezius, Sternocleidomastoid, muscles of: pharynx, larynx, soft palate
CN XII: Hypoglossal
Muscles of tongue
Superior Orbital Fissure
The Opthalmic (V1) Division-- leaves skull through _______
Frontal, Lacrimal, Nasociliary
3 Major Branches of V1 (Opthlamic Division of Trigeminal Nerve)
V1 (Opthalmic) is a sensory or motor nerve only?
V2 (Maxillary) is a sensory of motor nerve only?
The Maxillary (V2) Division leaves the skull through ________
Middle Superior Alveolar Nerve
Premolars & MB cusp of 1st molar
Posterior Superior Alveolar Nerve
Molars, except for MB cusp of 1st molar
Anterior Superior Alveolar Nerve
MX anterior teeth
Lingual gingiva of MX incisors
Greater Palatine Nerve
Mucosa of Hard Palate
The Mandibular (V3) Division-- leaves skull through ______
Sensory and Motor
The Mandibular Division (V3) is both ______ & _______
Buccal gingival up to mental foramen & cheek
Floor of mouth, lingual gingiva, anterior tongue
lower lip, chin
Inferior Alveolar Nerve
PSA; PSA; Greater Palatine
Nerve Branches to MX 3rd & 2nd Molars: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
PSA & MSA; PSA; Greater Palatine
Nerve Branches to MX 1st Molars: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
MSA; MSA & Infraorbital; Greater Palatine
Nerve Branches to MX Premolars: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
ASA; ASA & Infraorbital; Nasopalatine & Greater Palatine
Nerve Branches to MX Canines: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
ASA; ASA & Infraorbital; Nasopalatine
Nerve Branches to MX Incisors: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
IA; Buccal; Lingual
Nerve Branches to MN Molars: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
IA; Buccal or Mental; Lingual
Nerve Branches to MN Premolars: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
IA; Mental; Lingual
Nerve Branches to MN Canines/Incisors: Pulp: _______, Buccal:_________, Palatal:__________
pacemaker of the heart
vessel carrying blood AWAY from the heart (oxygenated)
vessel carrying blood TOWARD the heart (deoxygenated)
supplies blood to the wall of the heart
The ______ artery is only on the right side; unilateral
Internal Carotid Artery
Branch of Common Carotid Artery- Skull, Eye, Brain
External Carotid Artery
Branch of Common Carotid Artery- Teeth, oral & nasal cavities, muscles of mastication, tongue & floor of mouth, facial muscles, lips...
Maxillary, Lingual, Facial
3 branches of the External Carotid Artery
______ Artery- supplies teeth, muscles of mastication, oral/nasal cavities, palate & ear
______ Artery- supplies tongue, floor of mouth, tonsils & epiglottis
______ Artery- muscles of facial expression, lips, eyelid...
In general, veins run with arteries & often have the same name. An exception to this is the ________ Veins, which run with the _______ Arteries
______ Vein- drains entire brain area
______ Vein- drains facial structures
______ Vein- drains areas supplied by maxillary & superficial temporal arteries
The superficial temporal vein and the maxillary vein form the ___________ vein.
______ Vein- union of facial vein & retromandibular vein
Collection of veins found near maxillary tuberocity & pterygoid muscles. Drains to form the maxillary vein.
The pterygoid plexus may be pierced during a _______ nerve block (if incorrect angulation) and may result in a hematoma
True/False- Teeth drain into pterygoid plexus, then into maxillary vein.
Blood returns to the heart via retromandibular vein, external jugular vein, subclavian vein, brachiocephalic vein, superior vena cava and into the __________.
A sinus containing venous blood near the base of the brain & behind the bridge of the nose. Infections here may stagnate, cause serious damage & even death.
The function of the ________ system is to help the venous system in returning fluids to the bloodstream from tissues of the body.
The _______ Nodes drain fluid from MN incisors, tip of tongue, midline of lip, chin & floor of mouth
The _______ Nodes drain fluid from all teeth (except MN incisors)
Superior Deep Cervical
The _______ Nodes drain fluid from submandibular nods, 3rd molars & wall of throat
Inferior Deep Cervical
The _______ Nodes drain fluid from the superior nodes. The fluid in these nodes drain back into the bloodstream.
Jugular & Subclavian
Lymphatic fluid re-enters the blood stream at the junction of the ______&_______ veins.
The _______ Nodes= the first lymph nodes affected by a disease process.
An infection of a MN incisor would spread first to the ______ Nodes.
The ________ Nodes for the MN incisors are the submandibular nodes
Mandibular Branch of Trigeminal Nerve
Innervation for Muscles of Mastication
Blood supply for Muscles of Mastication
retracts & elevates mandible
elevates mandible & prodtrudes mandible
protrudes & depresses mandible; lateral shift
Facial Nerve (VII)
Innervation of Muscles of Facial Expression
Zygomaticus, Levator Anguli Oris & Risorius
The muscles that help us smile are _______.
elevates corners of mouth
What does the Levator Anguli Oris do?
What does the Zygomaticus muscle do?
What does the Risorius do?
pulls lower lip down
What does the Depressor Labii Inferioris do?
pulls down corner of mouth
What does the Depressor Anguli Oris do?
pulls chin skin upward
What does the Mentalis do?
lowers lip, tenses skin of neck
What does the Platysma do?
What does the Buccinator do?
contracts, protrudes lips; "kissing"
What does the Orbicularis Oris do?
Elevation of hyoid bone, retraction & depression of the mandible; Chewing, swallowing & speech
Stabilize hyoid bone
Muscle that tilts & rotates the head...Cranial Nerve XI (Accessory)
Muscle that rotates & elevates the scapula...Cranial Nerve XI (Accessory)
What artery supplies the tongue?
What nerve is sensory to the ANTERIOR tongue?
What nerve is associated with Taste sensation to anterior tongue?
What nerve is motor to tongue muscles?
What nerve is sensory & taste to posterior tongue?
_____ muscles control the shape of the tongue
_____ muscles control the position of the tongue
Papilla: Anterior to sulcus terminalis, taste buds, & glands of Von Ebner (serous)
Papilla: No taste buds, keratinized tips
Papilla: red bumps, contain taste buds
Papilla: Folds of tissue at posterior, lateral border; Contain taste buds
Taste senstation found at tip of tongue
Taste senstation found at posterior sides of tongue
Taste senstation found at posterior center of tongue
Taste senstation found at anterior and sides of tongue
aka Top of tongue
aka Bottom of tongue
V-shaped line separating posterior 1/3 and anterior 2/3 of tongue
Found at point of sulcus terminalis
The Foramen Cecum is the site of the embryonic origin of what gland?
65% of total saliva; Wharton's Duct empties under tongue; Facial Nerve
10% of total saliva; Ducts of Rivinus or Bartholin's Ducts; Facial Nerve
True/False: The Submandibular & Sublingual glands have the same parasympathetic nerve stimulation.
25% of total saliva; Stensen's Duct; Serous secretion only; Glossopharyngeal nerve
The part of the ______ are: mandibular fossa, glenoid fossa or articular fossa, articular eminence
Fibrous pad of dense collagen tissue in the TMJ
Thick, fibrous tissue surrounding the TMJ
The TMJ secretes what type of fluid?
Ligaments - Tendons
______ attach bone to bone <&> ______ attach muscle to bone
In normal function, does the disc of the TMJ move in conjunction with the condyle?
Lymph drainage for the tip of the tongue is submandibular to submental to deep cervical.
What type of arteries carry deoxygenated blood?
______ opens opposite the maxillary second molars
When the mouth is opened widely, does the articular disc move anterior or posteriorly?
The ______ valve separates the Left Atrium and Ventricle
Secretion of ______ is primarily controlled by the changes in blood glucose concentration
beneath circumvallate papillae
Where are Von Ebner's glands located?
Which gland secretes serous saliva only? Parotid, Sublingual, Submandibular
Angina pectoris is due to ______
Pain impulses from the PDL are carried by which cranial nerve?
A patient is unable to experience pain or pressure to the anterior 2/3 of tongue. Which nerve may be affected?
Which bone contains the superior orbital fissure?
The Hamulus is a landmark of what bone?
The nasopalatine nerve is a branch of which division of the trigeminal nerve?
The ______ Bone includes: mastoid process, styloid process & articular fossa & eminence
The Body is the Horizontal portion of the mandible.
______ is the junction of the body & ramus of the mandible
______ is the muscle attachement of the genioglossus muscle
What is the opening of the Inferior Alveolar nerve
The ______ nerve passes through the incisive forament under the incisive papilla
True/False- The salivary gland ducts are lined by stratified cuboidal epithelial cells.
The serous secretions of the Parotid Gland contain ______ to break down starches