the process by which green plants use the suns energy to make carbohydrats from carbon dioxide and water
compounds that cells can uses for energy.
the sum total of all the chemical reactions that go on in living cells.
includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and expends the energy from food
all the energy that sustains human life initialy comes from it
reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones.
most versatile and metabollically active
are glucose molecules joining together
glycerol and fatty acids
up ,building up
substances that facilitate enzyme action
reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones. release energy.
ATP, adenosine triphosphate
a common high energy compound composed of a purine(adenine), sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups.
pairs of chemical reactions in which some of the energy released from the breakdown of one compound is used to create a bond in the formation of another compound.
complex organic molecules that work with enzymes activity
this occurs whenever cells do any work that requires energy, and it readily break high energy bonds of ATP
are not proteins
contribute 10-15 percent of the days energy
glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, amino acids
are the four basic units derived from food
has six carbons
has three carbons
even number of carbons, usually 16 or 18
has 2,3,4 carbons with a nitrogen
3 carbon compound that plays a key role in energy metabolism
2 carbon compound to which a molecule of CoA is attached
coenzyme A, derived from B vitamin pantothenic acid and central to energy metabolism
TCA cycle or tribocylic acid cycle
a series of metabolic reactions that break down molecules of acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and hydrogen atoms, also called the Krebs cycle
Electron transport chain
the final pathway in energy metabolism that transports electrons from hydrogen to oxygen and captures the energy released in teh bonds of ATP.
the metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, does not require oxygen.
not requiring oxygen
cellular organelles responsible for producing ATP, made of membranes with enzymes on them
3 carbon compound produced from pyruvate during anaerobic metabolism
the path from muscle glycogen to clucose to pyruvate to lactate to glucose to glycogen
fatty acid oxidation
the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids to acetyl CoA also called beta oxidation
an organic acid that contains a carbonyl group
a compound with the chemical formula NH3, produced during the deamination of amino acids
the transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to a keto acid, producing a new nonessential amino acid and a new keto acid
the principal nitrogenexcretion product of protein metabolism.
a carbohydrate intermediate of the TCA cycle
are copmounds produced during the incomplete breakdown of fat when glucose is not available
ethanol or ethyl alcohol
2 carbons 1 hydroxal group
alchohol acts as
1 drink per day
2 per day
examples of 1./2 ounces of pure ethanol
5 oz wine, 10oz of wine cooler, 12oz beer, 1.5 oz of liquor
100 proof liquor is
80 proof liquor is
class of organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups
an enzyme active in the stomach and the liver that converts ethanol to acetaldehyde
intermed. stage of liver deterioration seen in several diseases, the liver cells lose their function and assume the characteristics of conn. tissue cells
advanced liver disease in which liver cells turn orange, die, harden, permanently losing their function
an early stage of liver deterioration seen in several diseases. Accumulation of fat in the liver cells
neurological disorder typically associated wtih chronic alcoholism and caused by a def. of the B vitamin thiamin
tough time battling medical stresses
infertility, and irregular menstrual cycles
diabetes, hypertension, CVD, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, cancer, gall bladder disease kidney stones,breathing problems
complicated pregnancies or surgeries
maintaining a body weight ina healthy range by preventing gradual weight gain over time and losing weight if overweight
who are the fattest women?
poor, blacks, and hispanics
protein produced by fat cells under direction of the ob gene that decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure
what causes weight gain?
genetics, environment,culture,behavior, socioeconomic,psychological,metabolic
protein produced by the stomach cells that enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure
a neurotransmitter important in sleep regulation, appetite control, and sensory perception
what is the ideal diet?
one who adopts a lifelong eating plan for good health and not a plan for diet for weight loss will lose weight and keep it off.
changing of behavior by the manipulation of antecedents the behavior itself, and consequences
with weight loss, fat cells
decrease in size only
obesity is caused by
the protein produced by the fat cells under the direction of the OB gene is
biggest problem with use of drugs in the tx of obesity is
adverse side effects
realistic goal for weight loss is to reduce body weight
by 10 percent over six months
nutritionally sound weight loss diet might restrict daily energy intake to create a
500 kcalorie per day deficit
successful weight loss depends on
reducing energy intake and increasing physical activity
physical activity does not help a person to
lose fat in trouble spots
the strategy that doesnt help an overweight person to lose weight
eat energy dense foods regularly
the strategy that doesnt help an underweight person to gain weight
drink plenty of water