Ball State Conference
Muncie, Indiana in 1964, established RID
Association of Visual Language Interpreters of Canada, established in 1979
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Accommodations must be provided in any institution receiving funds from the government
Americans With Disabilities Act
passed in 1990; businesses with 15 or more employees must provide reasonable accommodations; ambiguous phrasing like "qualified" and "reasonable accommodations"
Bilingual, Hearing, and Speech Impaired Court Interpreter Act
Passed in 1977, requires court appoint and pay for interpreters
Education of Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142)
All disabled children should be educated in the "least restrictive environment", passed in 1975
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Reaffirmed 1975 act, ensuring interpreters for Deaf children
National Interpreter Training Consortium (NITC)
Made up of 6 universities to educate interpreters
Interactive Model of Interpreting
emcompasses contributions of all participants and the environment (physical and psychological)
Initiator, receiver, and interpreter
Content, including information, imperatives, questions, casual comments, emotional expressions, AND paralinguistic elements
Bi-Bi Models of Interpreting
Interpreters may use judgment of individual situations to become "cultural mediators"
An attitude often taken on by interpreters; that the ability to hear and to sign give them moral or intellectual superiority
First to research processing time; processing time leads to higher interpreter accuracy, but has the inverse reaction if there is TOO much processing time.
a single language dominates, but elements of another language are intertwined
Going back and forth from one language to another
taking one word from another language; in ASL "lexical fingerspelling'
Matching a sign for every spoken word, and vice versa
Mouthing the English words to facilitate lipreading
Specific movements that accompany ASL grammar such as "Cha" and "Pah"