light microscope that has two converging lens systems: the objective and the eyepiece
a microscope that is similar in purpose to a light microscope but achieves much greater resolving power by using a parallel beam of electrons to illuminate the object instead of a beam of light
facts, figures, and other evidence gathered through observations
something in an experiment that can change
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
variable that is not changed in an experiment
an experiment in which only one variable is manipulated at a time
microscope that uses a beam of light passing through one or more lenses to magnify an object
Part of digestion that uses movement and muscles to break down food
the digestion process in which enzymes are used to break foods into their smaller chemical buiding blocks
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
molecules, usually proteins or nucleic acids, that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions
A muscular opening at the end of the rectum through which waste material is eliminated from the body
Also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the digestive tract, the alimentary canal is the long muscular "tube" that includes the mouth esophagus, somatch, small intesitne, and large intestine.
In the GI tract, organs that play a role in digestion but not directly part of the alimentary canal. These include the liver, the gallbladder, the pancreas, adn the salivary glands.
The ability to transport oxygen, food, and waste across cell membrane depends on, the amount of exposed surface of a substance
three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands
enzyme in saliva that breaks the chemical bonds in starches
muscular tube at the end of the gastrovascular cavity, or throat, that connects the mouth with the rest of the digestive tract and serves as a passageway for air and food
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
The flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.
large muscular sac (organ) that continues the mechanical and chemical digestion of food
involuntary waves of muscle contraction that keep food moving along in one direction through the digestive system
A digestive liquid added to food in the stomach to chemically break down protein.
Enzyme that breaks down proteins
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach into the small intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
circular muscle that controls the movement of chyme from the stomach to the small intestines
large organ just above the stomach that produces bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood
a mixture of salts and phospholipids that aids in the breakdown of fat,, a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder
a muscular sac attached to the liver that secretes bile and stores it until needed for digestion
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
Small fingerlike projections on the walls of the small intestines that increase surface area
colon; organ that removes water from the undigested materials that pass through it
The last part of the digestive tract, through which stools are eliminated
Removal of undigested waste
upper chamber of the heart that receives and holds blood that is about to enter the ventricle
a chamber of the heart that receives blood from an atrium and pumps it to the arteries
either of two heart valves through which blood flows from the atria to the ventricles
carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
blood that contains little oxygen (blue)
blood that carries an abundant amount of oxygen
carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart
the contraction of the chambers of the heart (especially the ventricles) to drive blood into the aorta and pulmonary artery
relaxation period, the widening of the chambers of the heart between two contractions when the chambers fill with blood
circulation of blood between the heart and the lungs
flow of blood from the heart through the body back to the heart
the flow of blood to and from the tissues of the heart
The thick red fluid that flows through the body's blood vessels and transports important substances throughout the body.
liquid portion of blood made up of water, dissolved salts, proteins, and other substances
iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
white blood cells
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes and monocytes, cells that help the body fight diseases and infections
cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots
Tiniest lymphatic vessels, Drains away fluid so that it does not accumulate in the tissues of our body.
bean-shaped organs varying in size found throughout the body; filter microorganisms and foreign materials from lymphocytes
carry blood from the heart to all parts of the body
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
the clear fluid that bathes each cell and transfers needed substances and wastes back and forth between the blood and the cells
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
The passages that branch from the trachea and direct air into the lungs
small subdivisions of the bronchi that are dead ends with tiny air sacks called alveoli at the end
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
Respiration that requires oxygen, sequentially releasing energy and storing it in ATP
Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid.
when a muscle continues to burn sugar but doesn't have enough oxygen to do it properly and becomes sore
nerve cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
maintains cell fluids; helps nerves communicate, Na
helps build protein; maintains fluids; helps nerves communicate; helps muscles contract, K
the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber
extension of the cell body of a neuron that carries impulses from the environment or from other neurons toward the cell body
largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
The endpoint of a neuron where neurotransmitters are stored.
chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell
location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell
picks up stimuli from the internal or external environment and converts each stimulus into a nerve impulse
a nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord
nerve cell that carries messages away from the central nervous system towards the muscles and glands; efferent neuron
any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
Central Nervous System, the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System, the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
a division of the nervous system that controls voluntary muscle movements
This nervous system provides involuntary control over smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.
Sensory receptor, sensory neuron, motor neuron, and effector that are involved in a quick response to a stimulus.
a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain
The part of the central nervous system that is located in the skull and controls most functions in the body
anterior portion of the brain consisting of two hemispheres, large part of the brain that controls the senses and thinking
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
the part of the brain continuous with the spinal cord and comprising the medulla oblongata and pons and midbrain and parts of the hypothalamus
part of the brain nearest the spinal cord which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands that are produced in one tissue and affect another
negative feedback mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that reduces the output of the stimulus
positive feedback mechanism
homeostatic control mechanism that increases the stimulus to push the variable farther from its originial value
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
Two lobes joined by a central mass in the throat, inferior to the larynx, produces two major hormones., produces hormones that regulate metabolism, body heat, and bone growth
behing the thyroid gland, acts to maintain homeostasis of calcium levels in blood
On the kidneys, fight or flight hormone, regulates water balance, blood pressure, and joint articulation, hormones: adrenaline, steroids (cortisone)
Isles of langerhans
controls storage of sugar in the liver and blood level of sugar, insulin and glucagan, in the pancreas
In the scrotum, testosterone, the male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones.
female gonads, estrogen and progesterone, pelvic region, female secondary sex characteristics, menstrual cycle.