NLN PAX RN Study Guide IV

177 terms by melilifegoeson

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

PAX study guide terms to be defined

homogenous mixture

a mixture in which the composition is uniform throughout

solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances uniformly dispersed throughout

filtration

a process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture

solvent

a liquid substance capable of dissolving other substances

solute

the dissolved substance in a solution

tincture

A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine.

chromatography

the process of seperating a chemical mixture into its individual substances

heterogeneous mixture

least mixed, does not appear to be same throughout, particles easy to see

emulsion

A uniform mixture of two unmixable liquids; it is often temporary (oil in water)

solubility

the ability of one substance to dissolve in another at a given temperature and pressure

distillation

the process of purifying a liquid by boiling it and condensing its vapors

chemical change

a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter

physical change

a change from one state (solid or liquid or gas) to another without a change in chemical composition

reaction

a process in which one or more substances are changed into others

reactant

a chemical substance that is present at the start of a chemical reaction

product

a chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction

synthesis

a chemical reaction in which two or more simple substances combine to form a new, more complex substance

single replacement reactions

element reacting with a compound atom of the single element replaces an element in the compound

double displacement reactions

where two compounds react to form two new compounds

acid base reaction

When an acid and base mix together, neutralize one another's properties, and form a salt.

neutralization reaction

a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base interact with the formation of a salt

acid

any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt

base

any of various water-soluble compounds capable of turning litmus blue and reacting with an acid to form a salt and water

pH scale

a range of numbers used to describe how acidic or basic a solution is; ranges from 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most basic)

indicator

a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance

decomposition reactions

when a molecule is broken down into smaller molecules, atoms, or ions.

activation energy

energy needed to get a reaction started

catalyst

a substance that initiates or accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being affected

exothermic

chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat

endothermic

describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings

equlibrium

When molecules are moving form greater to lesser concentration in an attempt to reach a balanced state or ao state of.

organic compound

a covalently bonded compound that contains carbon, excluding carbonates and oxides

hydrocarbon

organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms

alcohol

A substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups(-OH)

aldehyde

An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.

ketone

An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.

structural formula

an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule

carbohydrate

an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals

monosaccharide

single sugar molecule (monomer)

disaccharide

A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.

polysaccharide

a complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides (sugar)

starch

polysaccharide made up of a chain of glucose molecules; food storage molecule for plants

glycogen

The form in which the liver and muscles store glucose

lipid

macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

fatty acid

an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils

glycerol

Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.

protein

an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells

amino acid

a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins

dehydration synthesis

a chemical reaction in which large molecules are formed by removing water from smaller molecules and joining them together

hydrolysis

a chemical process in which a compound is broken down and changed into other compounds by taking up the elements of water

Lugol's solution

used to test for starch (iodine)

Benedict's solution

solution to test for glucose.

displacement

distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point

motion

an object's change in position over time when compared with a reference point

speed

distance traveled by an object per unit time

velocity

the speed of an object in a particular direction

acceleration

a rate of change of velocity

deceleration

object slowing down or negative acceleration

momentum

Mass times Velocity

conservation of momentum

the law that states that the total momentum in a system of interacting objects always remains the same

vector

a quantity with magnitude and direction.

newtons first law

an object at rest will stay at rest, an object that is moving will stay moving unless disturbed by an unbalanced force.

inertia

the tendency of a body to maintain is state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force

newtons second law

the net force of an object is equal to the product of it's acceleration and mass.

force

the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity

newton

A unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second

friction

the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface

gravity

the force of attraction between all masses in the universe

weight

force of gravity on an object

torque

twisting force; producing rotation

lever arm

The perpendicular distance from the axis of rotation to a line drawn along the direction of the force

centripetal force

any force that causes an object to move in a circular path

newtons third law

for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction, for every force or action there is an equal and opposite force or reaction

energy

the capacity of a physical system to do work

kinetic energy

the energy of motion

potential energy

Energy that is stored and held in readiness

work

a manifestation of energy "work equals force times distance"

joule

a unit of work equal to one newton-meter

power

the rate of doing work

machine

A device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point

efficiency

equals the output work divided by the input work; expressed as a percentage

simple machine

a device for overcoming resistance at one point by applying force at some other point

inclined plane

slated surface used to raise an object

wedge

an inclined plane that moves

screw

a simple machine of the inclined-plane type consisting of a spirally threaded cylindrical rod that engages with a similarly threaded hole

lever

Any rigid rod or plank that rotates or pivots about a point (or fulcrum). MA= distance from fulcrum to input force/ distance from fulcrum to output force. Ex: seasaw

pulley

a simple machine that consists of a rope that fits into a groove in a wheel

wheel and axle

a lever that rotates in a circle

compound machine

is a combination of 2 or more machines

density

the amount of mass in a given space; mass per unit volume

atom

the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element

kinetic theory

explanation of the behavior of molecules in matter; states that all matter is made of constantly moving particles that collide without losing energy

solid

a substance that has a definite shape and volume

liquid

a substance in the fluid state of matter having no fixed shape but a fixed volume

gas

A state of matter that does not have a definite shape or volume

molecules

groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds

pressure

the force applied to a unit area of surface

boyle's law

The relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases., P1V1=P2V2

charles's law

that for a fixe amount of gas at aconstant pressure the volume of the tgas increases as its temperature increases.

temperature

a measure of how hot or cold something is

heat

a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature

specific heat

amount of heat required to increase the temperature of water

phase

a distinct state of matter in a system

change

exchange or replace with another, usually of the same kind or category

latent heat

heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at a constant temperature and pressure

phase change

the reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance 1 degree Celsius

celcius

based on freezing point of water, freezing point of water is 0 degrees celcius, boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius

kelvin

a unit of measurement of the movement of molecules

fahrenheit

A unit for measuring temperature in the customary system

ice point

The temperature at which ice melts or water freezes

steam point

The point at which water at standard pressure boils

triple point

the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance coexist at equilibrium

absolute zero

The coldest temperature, 0 Kelvin, that can be reached. It is the hypothetical temperature at which all molecular motion stops.

motion

the act of changing location from one place to another

wave

a movement like that of an ocean wave

longitudinal wave

a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels

transverse wave

a wave that moves the medium in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels

periodic motion

any motion that repeats at regular time intervals

period

an amount of time

frequency

the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations

hertz

unit of measurement for frequency

amplitude

the maximum displacement of a periodic wave

crest

the highest point of a wave

trough

a narrow depression (as in the earth or between ocean waves or in the ocean bed)

wave length

the length from one crest to another

diffraction

when light passes sharp edges or goes through narrow slits the rays are deflected and produce fringes of light and dark bands

interference

a wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap

resonance

a vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system

photon

a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy

electromagnetic waves

a form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space

electromagnetic spectrum

the entire frequency range of electromagnetic waves

visible light

electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation

pitch

the property of sound that varies with variation in the frequency of vibration

loudness

the human perception of how much energy a sound wave carries

doppler effect

change in the apparent frequency of a wave as observer and source move toward or away from each other

reflection

a likeness in which left and right are reversed

refraction

The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another

dispersion

The relative distribution or arrangement of it's individuals within a given amount of space.

lens

a transparent optical device used to converge or diverge transmitted light and to form images

convex lens

lens such that a beam of light passing through it is brought to a point or focus

focal point

a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges

radio waves

Lowest frequency electromagnetic waves

infrared waves

long wave lengths,penetrate the deepest and have most heat

ultraviolet light

electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength between 1 and 380 nanometers

x-rays

radiographs, film images, creaged by projection of high energy electromagnetci waves through an area of a patients body onto a photographic plate, shows bony structures and organ outlines.

gamma rays

waves of energy given off by radioisotopes

neutron

neutral particle of an atom

proton

positively charged particle

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set