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Victimologists

A person who studies the victim's role in criminal transactions.

Active Precipitation

The view that the source of many criminal incidents is the aggressive or provocative behavior of victims.

Capable Guardians

Effective deterrents to crime, such as police or watchful neighbors.

Vicarious fear

o Those who observe or are exposed to violence on a routine basis become fearful

Gender and Victimization

• *Except for the crimes of rape and sexual assault, males are more likely than females to be the victims of violent crime
• *Females are more often victimized by someone they know, while males are more often victimized by strangers
 more than likely, the males partner and/or female is the one

Victim Impulsivity

Both male and female victims have an impulsive personality that might render them abrasive and obnoxious, characteristics that might incite victimization

Victims' Rights

*85

Victimization

While the crime is still fresh in their minds, victims may find that the police interrogation following the crime is handled callously, with innuendos or insinuations that they were somehow at fault. Victims have difficulty learning what is going on in the case; property is often kept for a long time as evidence and may never be returned. Some rape victims report that the treatment they recieve from legal, medical, and mental health services is so destructive that they cannot help but feel "re-raped"

Passive Precipitation

The view that some people become victims because of personal and social characteristics that make them attractive targets for predatory criminals.

Lifestyle Theory

People may become crime victims because their lifestyle increase their exposure to criminal offenders

Chronic Victimization

Those who have been crime victims maintain a significantly higher chance of future victimization than people who have remained nonvictims. Most repeat victimizations occur soon after a previous crime has occurred, suggesting that repeat victims share some personal characteristic that makes them a magnet for predators.

Target Hardening

Making one's home or buisness crime proof through the use of locks, bars, alarms, and other devices.

Repeat Victimization

Individuals who have been crime victims have a significantly higher chance of future victimization than people who have not been victims
Factors that predict chronic victimization: target vulnerability, target gratifiability, and target antagonism

Hotspots

• A place where potentially motivated criminals congregate thereby elevating the chances of victimization

# Victimizations/Year in US

20 million

Victim Precipitation Theory

The idea that the victim's behavior was the spark that ignited the subsequent offense, as when the victim abused the offender verbally or physically.

Routine Activities Theory

The view that the volume and distribution of predatory crime are closely related to the interaction of suitable targets, motivated offenders, and capable guardians.

Deviant Place Theory

People become victims because they reside in socially disorganized, high-crime areas where they have the greatest risk of coming into contact with criminal offenders.

Property Crime Victimization trend

...

Violent Crime Victimization trend

...

Social Status and Victimization

• The poorest Americans are the most likely victims of violent and property crime - the wealthy are more likely to experience personal theft

Victim Compensation

The victim ordinarily recieves comprensations from the state to pay for damages associated with the crime. Rarely are two compensation schemes alike, however, and many state programs suffer from lack of both adquate funding and proper organization within the criminal justice system. Compensation may be made for medical bills, loss of wages, loss of future earnings, and counseling. In the case of death, the victim's survivors can receive burial expenses and aid for loss of support.

Motivated Offenders

*78

Suitable Targets

According to routine activites theory, a target for crime that is relatively valuable, easily transportable, and not capably guarded.

Cycle of Violence

The idea that victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves.

Age and victimization

data reveals that young people face a much greater victimization risk than older persons
Risk diminishes rapidly after 25
2/1000

Race and Victimization

• African Americans are more likely than whites to be victims of violence crime
• Serious violent crime rates have declined in recent years for both blacks and whites

Marital status and Victimization

• Never-married people are victimized more than married people - widows and widowers have the lowest victimization risk

Restitution Agreements

A condition of probation in which the offender repays society of the vicitm of crime for the trouble the offender caused. Monetary restitution involves a direct payment to the victim as a form of compensation. Community service restitution may be used in victimless crimes and involves work in the community in lieu of more severe criminal penalties.

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