1.)hindisight bias-tendency to percieve outcome that already occurred as being obvious and predictable
2.)overconfidence-think we know more about an issue than we actually do and overestimate how accurate we are
-Identify two pitfalls in thinking that make intuition and common sense untrustworthy
attitudes-curiousity, skepticism, humility
critical thinking-examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evauluates evidence and assesses conclusions
discuss the attitudes that characterize scientific inquiry, and explain the nature of critical thinking
theories-explain, organize, predict hypotheses-testable prediction opeartional definition-clear procedures used to define and measure research variables replication is important because it helps us reassure ourselves that our outcome was correct and to see if we have to change our hypotheses or correct something in our experiment
explain the importance of theories, hypotheses, operational definitions, and replication in psychology
the tendency to perceive an outcome that has occurred as being obvious and predictable is called...
our everyday thinking is also limited by______in what we think we know.
curiousity, curious skepticism, humility
the scientific approach that is characterized by the attitudes of_________,_________, and _____________
reasoning that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions is called ________ ________
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observable behaviors or events is a _______. Testable predictions that allow a scientist to evaluate a theory are called________.
operatuional definitions, replicate
in order to prevent theoretical biases from influencing scientific observations, research must be reported precisely-using clear________ ________ of all concepts-so that others can_____ the findings.
descriptive, correlational, experimental
the three basic research strategies in psychology are________,_______,_______methods.
case study-studies in depth 1 person
survey-asks people to report their behavior/opinions
naturalistic observation-observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring habitats
discuss the descriptive research strategies
-they find a population that best represents everyone
-they give us consistent rather than highly variable data
-their studies test larger samples then they do small
describe how psychologists make statistical inferences about differences between groups
can lab experiments illuminate everyday life? it is not the experiments purpose to recreate behaviors but to test theoretical principles. They are not culture and gender free because behaviors vary amongst gender and culture
discuss questions regarding the artificiality of experimentation and whether psychological principles are culture-or gender free
to find cures for some diseases and problems-the main concern is wheter there should be compassion for animals or compassion for humans. Psychologists actually feel ethically obligated to enhance the well-being of captive animals. If a few animals suffered in order to save millions of other animals and humans, is it really that bad?
explain why psychologists study animals, and discuss the ethics of experimentation
values affect what we study, how we study it, and how we interpret the results. Psychology has the power to deceive people but it also has to power to enlighten them
describe how psychologists' values influence their work, and discuss whether psychology is potentially dangerious
1.) atypical individuals in case studies
2.)way things are worded in surverys(wording effect)
3.) lack of control in naturalistic observation
discuss the limitations and possible pitfalls of descriptive research
case study, atypical
the research strategy in which one or more individuals is studied in depth in order to reveal universal principles of behavior is the....a potential problem with this method is that any given individual may be______
the method in which a group of people is questioned about their attitudes or behavior is the _____ method
an important factor in the validity of survey research is the ______ of questions
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate others' agreement with us is the...
surveys try to obtain a _____ sample, one that will be representative of the ________ being studied. In such a sample, every person_____(does/does not) have a chance of being included. Large, representative samples_____(are/ are not) better than small ones.
we are more likely to overgeneralize from select samples that are especially_____
the research strategy in which people or animals are directly observed in their natural environments is called_______ __________.
case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation do not explain behavior; they simple_____ it.
varies, social, solitary
using naturalistic observation of walking speed and the accuracy of public clocks, researchers have concluded that the pace of life____(varies/ does not vary) from one culture to another. Researchers have also found that people are more likely to laugh in _____ situations than in _______ situations
negative: if one variable decreases, then the other variable increases
positive: one variable increases, the other variable increases
no correlation: no pattern or direct increase
-a correlation shows how closely 2 things are related and how one predicts the other
describe the types of correlation, and discuss why correlation enables prediction but not explanation
a perceived nonexistent correlation. They help explain superstitious beliefs. We believe there is a relationship when a relationship doesn't actually exist.
explain the nature and significance of illusory correlations
max: 1, min: -1
what is the maximum and minimum correlation coefficient?
correlated, predict, positively correlated, negatively correlated
when changes in one factor are accompanied by changes in another, the two factors are said to be______, and one is thus able to____ the other. The factors increase or decrease together, they are _______ ________. If, however, one decreases as the other increases, they are ________ _______
graphs called ______ are often used to depict the relationship between two sets of scores
-1, 1, in between
stronger correlational relationships are closer to ___ or ___, weaker relationships are ___ _____
strength, weakness, causation, cause-effect
a negative correlation between two variable does not indicate the______ or _____ of the relationship. Nor does correlation prove_____; rather, it merely indicates the possibility of a ____-_____ relationship.
illusory correlation, superstitious
a perceived correlation that does not really exist is an _________ _______. This error in thinking help explains many _______ beliefs
negatively correlated, because one variable is going down and one variable is going up.
if your level of test anxiety goes down as your time spent studying for the exam goes up, would you say these events are positively or negatively correlated? Explain your reasoning
another common tendency is to perceive order in _____ ______.
more likely, intuition
basketball players and fans mistakenly believe that players are ______(no more likely/ more likely_ to score after having just made the last two or three shots. However, we need to remember that out _____often misleads us.
advantages: the clearest and cleanest way to isolate cause and effect
1.) manipulating the factors of interest
2.)holding constant other factors nature: a research method in which an investigator manipulates 1 or more factors
describe the nature and advantages of experimentation
it equalizes the 2 groups in age, attitudes and every other characteristic aspect
discuss the importance of random assignment and control techniques in research
do, experiments, manipulates, holding constant
research studies have found that breast-fed infants___ (do/ do not) grow up with higher intelligence scores than those of infants who are bottle-fed with cow's milk. To study cause-effect relationships, psychologists conduct_______. Using this method, a researcher ______ the factor of interest, while ________ _______ other factors.
placebo, placebo effect
researchers sometimes give certain participants a pseudo treatment , called a _______, and compare their behavior with that of subjects how receive the actual treatment. When merely thinking that one is receiving a treatment produces results, a ______ ______ is said to occur.
when neither the subjects nor the person collecting the date knows which condition a subject is in, the researcher is making use of the ______-______ ________
an experiment must involve at least two conditions: the _______ condition, in which the experimental treatment is absent, and the ______ condition, in which it is present.
experimenters rely on the ______ _________ of individuals to experimental and control groups
the factor that is being manipulated in an experiment is called the ______ variable. The measurable factor that may change as a result of these manipulations is called the ______ variable.
experiment is a good way to observe some behavior/mental processes because you can manipulate the factors of interest and control all other factors
explain at least one advantage of the experiment as a research strategy.
mean: the average of a set of data
median: score at the 50th percentile, middle score in a distribution
mode: the number that appears most in a set of data
define the 3 measures of central tendency
range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
standard deviation: a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
describe 2 measures of variation.
1. representative samples are better than biased samples
2. less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable
3.more cases are better than fewer
discuss 3 important principles in making generalizations about populations on the basis of samples
mean, median, mode
the three measures of central tendency are the ______, the _______, and the _____
the most frequently occurring score in a distribution is called the ____
total sum, number
the mean is computed as the ________ ______ of all the scores divided by the _____ of scores
the median is the score at the _____ percentile
when a distribution is lopsided or ______, the ____(mean/median/mode) can be biased by a few extreme scores
averages derived from scores with ____(high/low) variability are more reliable than those with ____(high/low) variability
range, standard deviation
the measures of variation include the _____ and the ______ _______.
gap between the lowest and highest scores
the range is computed as the _______________________________________
the range provides a(n) ____(crude/accurate) estimate of variation because it ____(is/is not) influenced by extreme scores
more accurate, takes
the standard deviation is a _____ _____(more accurate/less accurate) measure of variation than the range. Unlike the range, the standard deviation______(takes, does not take) into consideration information from each score in the distribution
it is safer to generalize from a________sample than from a _____ sample
averages are more reliable when they are based on scores with_____(high/low) variability
small samples provide a ___(more/less) reliable basis for generalizing than larger samples
significance, chance, reliable, statistically significant
tests of statistical_____are used to estimate whether observed differences are real-that is, to make sure that they are not simply the result of____variation. The differences are probably real if the sample averages are____and the differences between them is________ __________
unrealistic, principles, laboratory, stress in their marriages
laboratory experiments in psychology are sometimes criticized as being______. However, psychologists' concern is not with the specific behaviors but with the underlying theoretical______. As an example, researchers have found that people who flexibly cope with______ stresses also cope flexibly with_________________
ideas, behaviors, attitudes, traditions
culture refers to shared_____, _____, _____, and ______ that one generation passes on to the next.
processes,dyslexia, brain, genders
although specific attitudes and behaviors vary across cultures, the underlying____are the same. For instance, throughout the world people diagnosed with _____ exhibit the same_____malfunction. Likewise, similarities between the____far outweigh differences.
some people question whether experiments with animals are ______. They wonder whether it is right to place the _______ of humans over those of animals
1. obtain the informed consent of potential participants
2. protect them from harm and discomfort
3. treat information about individual participants confidentially
4. fully explain the research afterward
describe the goals of the ethical guidelines for psychological research
psychologists' values____(do/ do not) influence their theories, observations, and professional advice
postmodernism, social, agree
the viewpoint called_______questions scientific objectivity, aguing that most scientific concepts are merely_____constructs. Psychological scientists____(agree/disagree) on whether there is, in fact, a "real world" of psychological principles that science can reveal
favor, mental retardation,vary
most americans____(favor/oppose) capital punishment but not for people with _____ _________. Attitudes toward capital punishment___(vary/do not vary) from one nation to another
do not have
states with a death penalty______(have/do not have) lower homicide rates