the energy contained in a body by the nature of its atoms and molecules jostling(moving)
a substance with less jiggle
more jiggle and sliding over each other
with so much jiggle and movement the molecules or atoms disconnects from each other and start to collide
moving so fast that the atoms dissociate and form plasma
transfer of energy
proportional to the average translational kinetic energy per particle that make up a substance
________does not depend on the amount of substance _________does
temperature, thermal energy
is the temperature where molecules have lost all of their available kinetic energy. No more energy can be removed from the substance ( it can no longer get colder) particles have stopped moving
absolute zero also correlates with?
273 degrees Celsius or ?
O degrees Kelvin (K)
what is cold?
cold is the absence of heat
cold is not a ?
temperature is ?
the addition of heat
is the thermal energy transferred from one thing to another
heat always moves from _____temperature to ______ temperature
heat is measured in ?
a calorie is?
and energy rating, determined by the energy released when the food or fuel is burned
1st law of thermodynamics
when heat flows to or from a system, the system gains or loses an amount of heat equal to the amount of heat transferred
law of conservation
is the 1st law of thermodynamics, heat or energy is never destroyed only transferred.
2nd law of thermodynamics
heat never spontaneously flows from cold substance to a hot substance
3rd law of thermodynamics
no system can reach absolute zero
in natural process, high quality energy tends to transform into lower quality energy. order trends to disorder ( energy is no longer controlled)
the specific heat capacity os any substance ?
is the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit of mass of the substance by 1 degree Celsius
when a substance is heated, the molecules move faster and move farther apart
what is the only substance that expands and becomes less dense as it freezes?
the movement of heat energy from one substance to another
the transfer of heat happens in 3 ways
conduction, convection, radiation
is the transfer of heat through direct contact
an example of a good conductor is
bad conductors of heat
an example of a insulator
what is a very poor conductor of heat
is cooling by expansion, it only happens in fluids (liquids and air)
every object with temperature above absolute zero emits ?
the gas is attracted to the liquid where they attach to it and become part of the liquid. the result is the kinetic energy of the liquid increases and the temperature warms.
is a cooling effect
when the vapor pressure inside the bubble is great enough to withstand the pressure of the liquid surrounding it and the atmospheric pressure above it
flow of energy and phases
energy absorbed to warm a solid and make it a liquid, energy is absorbed by liquid to make it a gas, energy is removed from gas to form a liquid, energy is removed from liquid to form a solid.