# Week 4 packet physics

## 40 terms

### thermal energy

the energy contained in a body by the nature of its atoms and molecules jostling(moving)

### solid

a substance with less jiggle

### liquid

more jiggle and sliding over each other

### gas

with so much jiggle and movement the molecules or atoms disconnects from each other and start to collide

### plasma

moving so fast that the atoms dissociate and form plasma

### thermal dynamics

transfer of energy

### temperature

proportional to the average translational kinetic energy per particle that make up a substance

### ________does not depend on the amount of substance _________does

temperature, thermal energy

### absolute zero

is the temperature where molecules have lost all of their available kinetic energy. No more energy can be removed from the substance ( it can no longer get colder) particles have stopped moving

volume

### 273 degrees Celsius or ?

O degrees Kelvin (K)

### what is cold?

cold is the absence of heat

temperature

### heat

is the thermal energy transferred from one thing to another

higher, lower

joules

### a calorie is?

and energy rating, determined by the energy released when the food or fuel is burned

### 1st law of thermodynamics

when heat flows to or from a system, the system gains or loses an amount of heat equal to the amount of heat transferred

### law of conservation

is the 1st law of thermodynamics, heat or energy is never destroyed only transferred.

### 2nd law of thermodynamics

heat never spontaneously flows from cold substance to a hot substance

### 3rd law of thermodynamics

no system can reach absolute zero

### entropy

in natural process, high quality energy tends to transform into lower quality energy. order trends to disorder ( energy is no longer controlled)

### the specific heat capacity os any substance ?

is the quantity of heat required to change the temperature of a unit of mass of the substance by 1 degree Celsius

### thermal expansion

when a substance is heated, the molecules move faster and move farther apart

water

### heat transfer

the movement of heat energy from one substance to another

### conduction

is the transfer of heat through direct contact

metals

wood

air

### convection

is cooling by expansion, it only happens in fluids (liquids and air)

electromagnetic waves

### condensation

the gas is attracted to the liquid where they attach to it and become part of the liquid. the result is the kinetic energy of the liquid increases and the temperature warms.

### boiling

is a cooling effect

### boiling point

when the vapor pressure inside the bubble is great enough to withstand the pressure of the liquid surrounding it and the atmospheric pressure above it

### flow of energy and phases

energy absorbed to warm a solid and make it a liquid, energy is absorbed by liquid to make it a gas, energy is removed from gas to form a liquid, energy is removed from liquid to form a solid.