The Periodic Table of Elements

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Definitions, characteristics, examples, and non-examples of terms of the periodic table of elements.

Periodic Table
a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements according to atomic number as based on the periodic law
Characteristics: organized, useful, specific, tabular

Non-examples: bar graph, alphabet chart

Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Characteristics: identifies number of protons, is usually above the element symbol

Example: 72 if number of protons=72, 6 for Carbon
Non-examples: atomic mass, element symbol

Reactivity
the ability of a substance to go through a chemical change
Characteristics: involves the motion of electrons in forming and breaking chemical bonds, can be decomposed to elementary reactions, four basis kinds

Non-examples: water (vapor, ice, liquid), casting a mold, tearing paper

Metals
One of a class of elements that are good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be ductile, malleable, and shiny
Characteristics: good conductors of heat and electricity, ductile and malleable (flexible), shiny

Non-examples: Helium, Carbon

Valence Electrons
the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom; these electrons are involved in forming chemical bonds and can be identified by group number of element
Characteristics: in outermost energy level, can determine whether an element is a positive or negative ion

Examples: 2 valence electrons for Calcium, 4 if group number=14
Non-examples: protons, nucleus, energy level

Groups
vertical columns of elements in the periodic table; elements in a group share chemical properties and identifies number of valence electrons
Characteristics: elements have similar properties, shows number of valence electrons, vertical

Examples: 4A, 1-18, 8 if number of valence electrons=8
Non-examples: periods, lanthanides

Periods
horizontal rows of elements in the periodic table which shows the number of energy levels in an element
Characteristics: displays number of orbitals, horizontal

Examples: 1-7, 3 if number of orbitals=3
Non-examples: groups, valance electrons

Alkali Metals
the highly reactive metallic elements located in group 1 of the periodic table (Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, and Francium)
Characteristics: highly reactive, in Group 1, shiny, soft, silvery, can be cut easily with a knife

Non-examples: Noble gases, boron, gold

Nonmetals
elements that are usually dull in appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, gases at room temperature
Characteristics: poor conductors of heat and electricity, dull and brittle when in solid form, lower density, melting points and boiling points than metals

Non-examples: Boron, transition metals, Lithium

Noble Gases
the unreactive gaseous elements located in Group 18 of the periodic table (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, and Radon)
Characteristics: unreactive, outer energy level is full, very low melting and boiling points, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and nonflammable under standard conditions

Non-examples: Hydrogen, alkaline-earth metals, Curium

Transition Metals
Groups 3-12, 1-2 electrons in the outer energy level, less reactive than alkaline-earth metals, shiny, good conductor of thermal energy and electrical current, high density
Characteristics: located in Groups 3-12, shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, high density

Non-examples: Metalloids, Beryllium, Helium

Ions
charged particles that form during chemical changes when one or more valence electrons transfer from one atom to another
Characteristics: can be positive or negative, loses or gains electrons

Examples: Fe-, Na+,
Non-examples: compound, isotopes,

Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Characteristics: have same number of protons, differ in atomic mass, chemical properties remain the same

Examples: Carbon elements with atomic masses of 12 and 16
Non-examples: ions, compound

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