Ch. 3 Patterns in Nature: Minerals

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Ch 3 : 3rd edition of Essentials of Geology Stephen Marshak. HELP!!! Virtual lab for mineral identification!! Virtual "hands on" practice!!: 1a. http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/ES03/ES03.html http://www.sandatlas.org/rock-types/ Mneral identification 1. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7wJP_K_sAQ 2. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YyyJz6zeUsg&feature=endscreen&NR=1 Minderal identification chart: http://www.thesciencequeen.net/Mineral%20Identificati…

carbonates

〖CO〗_3^(2-)
*Elements such as Ca or Mg bond to this group
〖CaCO〗_3 = calcite
〖(CaMg[CO〗_3] 2 = dolomite

cleavage

A mineral has "cleavage" if it breaks to form distinct planar surfaces that ahve specific orientation in relation to the crystal structure.

conchoidal fracture

Smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surfaces
*typically formed in glass

crystal

A single, continous piece of crystaline

crystal face

Flat surfaces that bind crystaline.

crystal habit

Refers to the shape of a single crystal with well formed crystal faces.

crystal lattice

the fixed, orderly pattern of atoms in a mineral

crystal structure

The atoms are distributed in a fixed, orderly pattern
NOT RANDOM

facet

Ground and polished surfaces on a gem made with faceting machine.

gem

A cut and finished stone ready to be set in jewelry.

geode

Mineralized cavity in rock.

hardness

A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
*resistance to scratching

luster

The way a mineral surface scatters light.

mineral

A naturally occuring solid, formed by geologic processes
*has a crystaline structure and a defineable chemical composition.
*almost all are inorganic

mineralogy

Study of minerals

Mohs hardness scale

A scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals.
*Early 1800's Friedrich Mohs listed some minerals in sequence of relative hardness.

polymorph

two or more minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystalline structures.

silicate

〖SiO〗_4^(4-)
*4 oxygen atoms surround a single silicon atom.

silicon-oxygen tetrahedron

〖SiO〗_4^(4-)
Oxygen atoms are positioned in the corners of a tetrahedron.

specific gravity

Represents the density of a mineral.
*specified by ratio between weight of a volume of the mineral and weight of an equal volume of H2O at 4°C.

streak

Refers to the color of the powder produced by pulverizing the mineral.

symmetry

The shape of one part of a mineral is a mirror image of the shape of another part.

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