Ch 3 : 3rd edition of Essentials of Geology Stephen Marshak.
Virtual lab for mineral identification!! Virtual "hands on" practice!!:
Minderal identification chart:
*Elements such as Ca or Mg bond to this group
〖CaCO〗_3 = calcite
〖(CaMg[CO〗_3] 2 = dolomite
A mineral has "cleavage" if it breaks to form distinct planar surfaces that ahve specific orientation in relation to the crystal structure.
Smoothly curving, clamshell-shaped surfaces
*typically formed in glass
A single, continous piece of crystaline
Flat surfaces that bind crystaline.
Refers to the shape of a single crystal with well formed crystal faces.
the fixed, orderly pattern of atoms in a mineral
The atoms are distributed in a fixed, orderly pattern
Ground and polished surfaces on a gem made with faceting machine.
A cut and finished stone ready to be set in jewelry.
Mineralized cavity in rock.
A measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched.
*resistance to scratching
The way a mineral surface scatters light.
A naturally occuring solid, formed by geologic processes
*has a crystaline structure and a defineable chemical composition.
*almost all are inorganic
Study of minerals
Mohs hardness scale
A scale ranking ten minerals from softest to hardest; used in testing the hardness of minerals.
*Early 1800's Friedrich Mohs listed some minerals in sequence of relative hardness.
two or more minerals having the same chemical composition but different crystalline structures.
*4 oxygen atoms surround a single silicon atom.
Oxygen atoms are positioned in the corners of a tetrahedron.
Represents the density of a mineral.
*specified by ratio between weight of a volume of the mineral and weight of an equal volume of H2O at 4°C.
Refers to the color of the powder produced by pulverizing the mineral.
The shape of one part of a mineral is a mirror image of the shape of another part.