A&P Endocrinology

20 terms by newsomz 

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hormone

chemical messengers secreted into blood or extracellular fluid by one cell that affect the functioning of other cells

target cells

cells that respond to a hormone because they have specialized receptors for that hormone

hormonal release

when release of a hormone is dependent on other hormones

humoral release

when release of a hormone is dependent on blood chemistry

neural release

when release of a hormone is dependent on the firing of a nerve fiber

agonist

molecules that produce the same biological effect as the "normal hormone" that bind to the receptor. different agonists may produce dramatically different potencies

antagonist

molecules that bind to the receptor and block binding of the "normal hormone" therefore disrupting triggering of intracellular signaling events

action mechanisms for hormones

two types: activation of enzymes and other dynamic molecules (protein based) & modulation of gene expression (lipid soluble)

hypophysis

pituitary gland aka the "master gland"; divided into the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) and the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)

adenohypophysis

anterior pituitary; secretes thyrotropin (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and somatotropic hormone (growth hormone)

neurohypophysis

posterior pituitary; releases two hormones produced in the hypothalamus: antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin (Ox)

thyrotropin

aka TSH; manages activity of the thyroid gland

adrenocorticotropic hormone

aka ACTH; regulates activity of the adrenal cortex

follicle-stimulating hormone

aka FSH; a gonadotropic hormone: controls growth and reproductive activities of the sex glands

lutenizing hormone

aka LH; a gonadotropic hormone: controls growth and reproductive activities of the sex glands

prolactin

aka PRL; a gonadotropic hormone: controls growth and reproductive activities of the sex glands

somatotropic hormone

aka growth hormone; controls growth in all tissues

antidiuretic hormone

aka ADH; controls the rate of water excretion in urine

oxytocin

aka Ox; stimulates uterine contraction and helps regulate milk production

thyroid

anatomy: located in the neck below the thyroid cartilage of larynx; two lateral lobes connected by the isthmus (i.e. butterfly shaped) | physiology: secretes three thyroid hormones (T4, T3 & calcitonin) which control the speed of the body's chemical reactions (metabolic rate)

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