An earnest monk until he was 40 he broke away from the church to form his own protestant religion in the early 1500s. He believed in justification through faith alone and in self interpretation of the bible. He also supported strong state power over the church. Posted 95 thesis on the door of the church in Wittenburg.
Pope Leo X
The pope that Martin Luther appealed to before breaking away to form Lutheranism. He refused to correct the abuse of indulgences.
A friar that was traveling through Germany distributing indulgences to finance the building of St. Peter's in Rome. Angered Martin Luther and caused him to take action against the church.
Martin Luther pinned these to the door of the church at Wittenburg. They held that after confession the sinner is freed of sinful burdens and that the priest hood played a very small role in religion.
Created around 1520 by Martin Luther this religion encouraged self interpretation of the bible. Rejected the belief in Purgatory. Reduced the seven sacraments to two (baptism and confession). Clergy was same as laity. Clergy could marry. Brought to prominence by German rulers.
Diet of Worms
Held in Germany this was called to apprehend the heretic Martin Luther. During it Luther stated he could only be convinced by scripture.
German Princes in Reformation
Accepted Lutheranism and supported Luther because his religion was submissive to the power of the state. They protected Luther from the church.
Peasant revolts 1524
Inspired by the revolutionary tone of Lutheranism peasants revolted against state and were put down mercilessly without support from Luther. Later this group formed Anti Baptists.
The miscellaneous religion that encompassed all the groups that did not fall under protestant or catholics. Born out of the peasant revolts. Mainly believed in separation of Church and State because neither the church or state supported them and in adult baptisms.
Luther stressed that liberty was a freedom given by God and in worldly matter a christian obeyed the established authority.
League of Schmalkald
A group of Lutheran princes that formed against the Holy Roman Emperor. Wanted freedom of Religion and reform and rights in cities. Allied with France who wanted to keep Germany in turmoil.
Peace of Augsburg
Ended feud between League of Schmalkald and the Holy Roman Empire in 1555. Each region had the freedom to chose religion but whatever religion was decided upon could be the only enforced religion in that area. A great victory for Protestantism. Separated distinct German states.
A Frenchman who in 1536 published his Institutes of Christian Religion. Formed Protestant religion similar to Luthers with an emphasis on Predestination and the church should be in charge of the state.
Both Calvin and Luther refused to believe this process occurred when taking communion but continued the procedure mostly for traditional reasons.
A main component of Calvanism. It stressed that God already knew who was going to heaven or hell and that only a small group was headed to salvation. Made Calvanist austere and perfectionists.
The city that served as the model Christian society for John Calvin. The church controlled everything. Rules were strict: No loose clothing no dancing ect. art and music were frowned upon. Became the Protestant Rome.
Founded by John Calvin this religion focused much more on predestination and the supremacy of church over state. Spread much more widely than Lutheranism which was mostly confined to Germany. Mainly because Calvin had written his book in Latin and Geneva had become a central hub for protestantism that religious figures all over Europe used as a model.
Some small amounts of this was found in Calvinsim in that that did not believe that power was transferred hereditarily by kings and that they elected some officials.
Henry the Eighth
Founded Anglican Church after he wanted an annulment for his marriage. Passed act of supremacy which gave him rule over church and state. Distributed church land to supporters to replace nobel class weakened by War of Roses.
King henry VIII separated this church from the Roman catholic church and became its head. It remained very similar in Doctrine to Catholic Church.
Young woman Henry VIII married after getting his marriage annulled by the new church of England. Was put to death.
Catherine of Aragon
First wife of Henry VIII. She would not bear a son so Henry got the marriage annulled.
in 1553 became ruler of England. She was devoutly catholic and tried to re-catholicize the nation. She actually made Catholicism more un popular by marrying Phillip of spain who represented intense spanish catholicism.
became queen in 1558. England became protestant. Because she was born out of wedlock. Church of England began to resemble the Lutheran church. made doctrines broad and ambiguous to avoid dispute.
Ireland in Reformation
Although England became protestant this small nation stayed Roman Catholic.
The Catholic Movement that was in response to the protestant reformation. Included counter activity aimed at elimination of Protestants.
King of France during Reformation who strongly opposed Charles V and wanted to prevent Germany from uniting and the Catholic Church from reforming. Head of Gallican church
Council of Trent
Called by pope Paul III to try and reform the Catholic church. This council re affirmed many things that protestant religions had challenged such as the existence of Purgatory, justification by faith AND works. and many other important aspects. Upheld the power of pope over individual bishops.
Pope Paul the third
First of reform popes that wanted to reform the Catholic church. Called the Council of Trent.
America in Reformation
Protestants had low view of Natives from this region but Catholics tried to convert them and improve their lives. Much better treatment than the Conquistadors gave them.
St. Ignatius Loyola
A soldier who had a religious conversion. He became a soldier and crusader for the church. Established the Jesuits.
A new kind of Monastic order directed at active participation in the world. Strongly supported the central church over state churches and defended the poser of the pope. Acted as international missionary force. Reconverted many protestants.
Spanish inquisition in Reformation
Once used against the moors now employed against protestants. Mostly in Spanish Netherlands where Calvinism was common.
The inquisition directly under the pope in rome. Failed to get much done outside of italy. used torture.
Sir Thomas Moore
Refused to take the oath to King Henry VIII that the act of supremacy demanded. He was executed for treason. Later became a saint in the Roman Church.
Justification by faith alone
While Catholics believed that works and faith determined your salvation Luther argued for this.
Church of England
Was separated from Roman Catholic Church by Henry VIII. Started out as very similar to Catholicism in doctrine but became officially Protestant under Elizabeth I because the other church would not acknowledge her illegitimate birth.